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15 Aug
2020

competency based assessment

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A working document for trainers and assessorsto help you assess to the Australian Quality TrainingFramework standard.competency based assessmentguidelines forin vocationaleducation andtraining inWestern Australia
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Competency Based Assessment
Guidelines for competencybased assessment in vocationaleducation and trainingin Western Australiaa working document for trainers and assessorsto help you assess to the Australian Quality TrainingFramework standardProduced by the Western Australian Department of TrainingFebruary 2002These guidelines replace the 1997 Framework for Competency BasedAssessment in the vocational education and training sector inWestern Australia
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Competency Based Assessment
Contents
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Competency Based Assessment
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Assessment Policy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7National and State Assessment Policies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Key Assessment Policy Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Key Assessment Related Policies in Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Introducing Competency Based Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17What is competency? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17How do we know someone is competent?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17What standards are candidates assessed against? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17What is competency based assessment? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18What sort of evidence is collected? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18What training do assessors have? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18What about a candidate who believes they are already competent? . . . . . . . . . . 18What results do candidates get? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Why is there so much jargon?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19The Competency Based Assessment Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Understanding Competency and Training Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Understanding the Role of Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Designing Evidence Gathering Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Having Confidence in the Assessment Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Documenting the Process Adequately . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31Planning and Conducting the Assessment Activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32Exemplar Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Four dimensions of competency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36Clustering units of competency for assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38Competency profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39Evidence requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41Evidence Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43Assessment Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Recording Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48Reporting – Issuing qualifications and Statements of Attainment . . . . . . . . . . . . 49Assessment Materials or Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51Direct observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56Oral Questioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58Project based assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59Portfolio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60Contents
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Contents
Competency Based Assessment
Self-assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62Checklists and guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63Checklist for validity, reliability, fairness and flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64Self audit format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67Guidelines for workplace simulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70Use of third party evidence and third party evidence form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72Workplace assessment checklist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75Effective questioning guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76Guidelines for developing knowledge based tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78Assessment Planning Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79Guidelines for assessing distance learners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81Checklist for special needs of candidates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83Graded Performance Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85Resources Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87Acronyms and Glossary of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93These guidelinesprovide informationon the policies andprocesses involved incompetency basedassessment forpractitioners andother stakeholders inthe vocationaleducation andtraining sector.
Introduction
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Competency Based Assessment
These Guidelines for Competency Based Assessment replace a former publication producedby the Department of Training called the Framework for Competency BasedAssessment in the Vocational Education and Training Sector in Western Australia.They provide information on the policies and processes involved in competency basedassessment for practitioners and other stakeholders in the vocational education and trainingsector.The Guidelines have been written specifically for Registered Training Organisations (RTOs)and organisations working in partnership with RTOs to provide them with clear andaccessible information on national and state assessment policy and assessment processes.Other stakeholders such as Industry Training Councils (ITCs), Group Training Schemes andemployers may also find this document useful.The Guidelines consists of six sections as follows.1. A summary of the key national and state policy requirements relevant to competencybased assessment.2. An introduction to competency and competency based assessment for industry andindividuals new to the field.3. A guide to the competency based assessment process for employers and assessors lessfamiliar with competency based assessment.4. A series of exemplar materials for adaptation and use by assessors (which link to theconcepts and processes noted in Section 3).5. A list of resources for assessors, including websites, organisations and materials oncompetency based assessment.6. A list of acronyms used and a nationally developed glossary of terms for competencybased assessment.The Guidelines are available on-line at the Department of Training’s website and the TrainingAccreditation Council’s website.Introduction
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Introduction
Competency Based Assessment
Assessment Policy
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Competency Based Assessment
Section 1 of the Guidelines for Competency Based Assessment provides a summary of thekey assessment related policy requirements with which RTOs must comply and references tonational and state vocational education and training policies.This Section does not attempt to identify every requirement on RTOs, but rather to signpostreaders to the key assessment policies. The full requirements on RTOs can be found in theAustralian Quality Training Framework (AQTF) Standards and other policies referred to in thisdocument.National and State Assessment PoliciesThere are nine national and state policies that relate directly to competency basedassessment. These policies establish the requirements that RTOs operating in WesternAustralia must comply with in relation to their assessment obligations as part of registrationwith the Training Accreditation Council.Key staff members within RTOs must ensure that they are familiar with all national and statepolicies and have up-to-date copies readily available for new trainers and assessors.All assessors should ensure that they are familiar with the assessment-related aspects ofthese policies.The policies are:The National Training Framework, consisting of:1) the Australian Quality Training Framework (AQTF)2) Training PackagesOther National Policies:3) the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF)State Policies / Guidelines:4) Skills Recognition Framework for vocational education and training in Western Australia5) The Guidelines for Competency Based Assessment in vocational education and trainingin Western Australia (ie, this document)6) Apprenticeships and Traineeships and the Australian Quality Training Framework –Guidelines for Registered Training Organisations7) Building Diversity GuidelinesPolicies for Publicly Funded RTOs in WA:8) Fees and Charges Policy for publicly funded RTOs in Western Australia9) Graded Performance ProjectA brief summary of the function of each of these policies is provided on pages 12–15,together with a website address for those wishing to access copies of the policies or furtherinformation on them.Section 1: Assessment Policy
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Assessment Policy
Competency Based Assessment
Key Assessment Policy RequirementsThis section summarises some of the key assessment policy requirements on RTOs underthirteen different headings. Many of these requirements will be familiar to RTOs from theformer Australian Recognition Framework Standards and National Assessment Principles, thecurrent Australian Quality Training Framework Standards and the 1997 Framework forCompetency Based Assessment in the Vocational Education and Training Sectorin Western Australia (which included state assessment criteria). This is not acomprehensive list of all assessment related policy requirements. For full RTO requirements,see the AQFT Standards and the other national and state policies noted above.Assessment BenchmarksEndorsed industry/enterprise competency standards (where they exist) form the benchmarksfor assessment. Assessment Guidelines within endorsed Training Packages provide theframework for assessment of the units of competence within the relevant industry orenterprise. All assessors must be familiar with relevant competency standards and TrainingPackages.(See also pages 22–24)Mutual RecognitionMutual recognition is critical to the operation of a nationally consistent vocational educationand training system and is a key principle underlying the AQTF. It is a requirement forregistration that RTOs agree to recognise the AQF qualifications and Statements ofAttainment issued by other RTOs. All staff involved in assessment must be made aware ofthe RTO’s mutual recognition obligations.As part of the mutual recognition obligation, RTOs must have appropriate credit transferarrangements. Credit transfer is an arrangement to give a standard level of credit or formalrecognition to a learner who has previously achieved competence in a training or educationenvironment. Some credit transfer arrangements are also called standard or non-standardexemptions or advanced standing.Skills Recognition ProcessesSkills recognition opportunities must be offered to all clients prior to enrolment, and RTOsmust ensure that the process and cost of the service do not prohibit or discourage clientsfrom accessing the service. RTOs must ensure compliance with the state’s Skills RecognitionFramework, which establishes the principles, guidelines and minimum quality requirementsfor skills recognition in Western Australia.Qualified AssessorsRTO staff must be competent for the functions they perform in relation to training andassessment, and the RTO must be able to demonstrate that trainers and assessors have therequired competencies for the work they undertake, as well as evidence of how assessorsmaintain relevant industry experience.All assessors must be competent in the Plan Assessment, Conduct Assessment and ReviewAssessment units from the Training Package for Assessment and Workplace Training (orequivalent competencies) and the relevant vocational competencies at least to the levelbeing assessed OR the team assessing must have these competencies between them.
Assessment Policy
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Competency Based Assessment
Assessors must also possess any other requirements noted in the relevant Training PackageAssessment Guidelines (eg industry knowledge or experience).All trainers must be competent in the Certificate IV from the Training Package forAssessment and Workplace Training (or equivalent competencies) or must be under the directsupervision of a person with these competencies, and the relevant vocational competenciesat least to the level being trained.RTOs must have appropriate written procedures and materials on areas such as recruitment,induction and professional development. The RTO is responsible for ensuring that allassessors are provided with a full induction and ongoing professional development to ensurethey undertake quality assessments at a high level and in accord with national and statepolicies. The RTO induction process will include information on the relevant Training Package,these state Guidelines for Competency Based Assessment and the state Skills RecognitionFramework, as well as the WA policies for publicly funded RTOs if appropriate.Informing ClientsInformation on assessment procedures, appeals procedures and skills recognition (orRecognition of Prior Learning) arrangements must be provided to clients prior to enrolment.The RTO’s marketing and advertising must identify training and assessment services that leadto an AQF qualification or Statement of Attainment (within their scope of registration)separately from any other training or assessment services (such as community education).FeesRTOs must ensure that they have fair and reasonable fees and refund policies for all modesof training delivery and assessment (ie flexible delivery, on-line delivery, skills recognition,workplace assessment and training etc). Information on these policies must be provided toclients, prior to enrolment, in clear and accessible language and using a range of methods(eg website information, fliers, in advertising material etc). If an RTO is involved in thedelivery of training and assessment services to overseas clients, they must comply with theCommonwealth Register of Institutions and Courses for Overseas Students (CRICOS)requirements.Assessment PlansThe RTO must ensure that Assessment Plans are developed and provided to all candidatesprior to their assessment. Candidates may appeal if they believe the assessment has notbeen carried out in accordance with the Assessment Plan. In the case of traineeships andapprenticeships, the Training Program Outline will meet many of the requirements of theAssessment Plan.In the event of an appeal by the candidate the Assessment Plan will be a key sourcedocument.Workplace based assessment must be negotiated between the RTO, employer and candidate,and must be documented by the RTO in the Assessment Plan. The RTO must ensure that anyassessments occurring in the workplace are conducted in an environment with theappropriate facilities, in accordance with the Training Program Outline.(See also pages 28, 46–47)
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Assessment Policy
Competency Based Assessment
Validity, Reliability, Flexibility and FairnessAssessments must be valid, reliable, flexible and fair. Assessors must ensure that assessmentdecisions involve the evaluation of sufficient evidence to enable a judgement to be made onthe competence of the candidate. Assessors must be familiar with the rules of evidence(that is, evidence must be authentic, current, valid, reliable and sufficient).Assessment materials used must comply with the relevant Training Package AssessmentGuidelines, provide for holistic assessment (ie use a process which integrates knowledge andskills with their practical application in a workplace task), cover all four dimensions ofcompetency, target the correct qualification level, cover the key competencies at theappropriate level, and be able to be customised.(See also pages 29–30, 64–66.)EquityThe RTO’s access and equity policies and procedures should cover assessment as well astraining. All assessments must be fair and flexible and incorporate the needs of groups suchas indigenous peoples, people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, peoplewith disabilities, clients in remote locations and youth.The guiding principles of the state Building Diversity Policy should be followed: that is, tobuild on individual talents and experiences, to recognise and respond to the diversity ofindividual needs, and to offer choice and flexibility to cater for individual circumstances.As well as meeting the requirements specified in the relevant Training Packages, assessmentmethods and materials must be holistic, fair and flexible. They must not include anylanguage, literacy or numeracy requirements at a level greater than outlined in thecompetency standards being assessed.Strategies for supporting and assessing workplace, distance and on-line learners must bedeveloped, implemented, and reviewed to ensure continuous improvement.(See also pages 29–30, 64–66, 81–84.)Reporting and Recording ResultsIt is the responsibility of the assessor to keep a record of the evidence presented by thecandidate that enables the assessment decision to be made.Qualifications and Statements of Attainment must identify the units of competency that thecandidate has attained, as well as meeting the other requirements noted in the AQFImplementation Handbook. Qualifications and Statements of Attainment can only be issuedfor areas within the RTO’s scope of delivery.Logos must be used in accordance with the ‘Nationally recognised training logospecifications’ (ANTA 1999) when issuing qualifications or Statements of Attainment andwhen marketing or advertising the training and assessment activities of the RTO.In Western Australia, RTOs must also comply with the Logo Guidelines for the use of theTraining Accreditation Council (TAC) Logo.(See also pages 33, 48–50.)
Assessment Policy
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Competency Based Assessment
Candidate Feedback and Appeals ProcessesRTOs must ensure that candidates are provided with feedback, which should include theassessment outcome, recommendations for further training, and appeals and reassessmentoptions.RTOs must have an Appeals Policy in place which allows candidates to challenge theassessment decision and enables them to be reassessed. A reasonable non-refundable feewill be charged by the RTO high enough to discourage frivolous appeals but not highenough to prohibit appeals. The grounds for an appeal are:the judgement as to whether competency has been achieved and demonstrated wasmade incorrectly, and/orthe judgement was not made in accordance with the Assessment Plan.It is the responsibility of the assessor undertaking the assessment to ensure that evidence iskept in sufficient detail to enable an assessment decision to be reviewed in the case of anappeal. This could involve keeping a summary of the evidence presented by the candidate.(See also pages 33 and see Guide 1: Training Package Assessment Materials Kit, Chapter 7.)Continuous Improvement and DocumentationAssessment systems, like all other aspects of RTO operations, must incorporate ongoingmonitoring and improvement processes. In particular, the RTO must develop processes toenhance the consistency of assessments, such as assessor moderation forums, consultationwith industry and professional development for assessors. All assessors must participate inat least one internal or external assessment moderation forum each year. Moderationforums must involve a range of assessors and other stakeholders. Recommendations andactions taken must be documented. These processes should be linked to the organisation’sinternal audit processes.RTO policies must include assessment policies and procedures, including quality assuranceprocedures for assessment processes and instruments. These policies must be documented,comprehensive and up to date.Procedures to manage the different versions of accredited course documents (TrainingPackages) and learning and assessment materials need to be implemented, and all materialsreviewed for currency on a regular basis.RTOs must ensure that all assessment methods and materials are appropriately documentedfor each qualification in their scope of registration. This documentation should highlight thecore/elective units of competency being assessed, the client target group, the delivery andassessment modes, pathways, customisation of assessments, and assessment validationprocesses. (See also page 31.)Publicly Funded RTOsPublicly funded RTOs must comply with relevant policies for publicly funded RTOs. Thisincludes the “Hold Policy” which requires publicly funded RTOs to offer candidates at leasttwo assessment attempts in any one enrolment period.
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Assessment Policy
Competency Based Assessment
Key Assessment Related Policies in SummaryThe Australian Quality Training Framework (AQTF)(Replaces the Australian Recognition Framework or ARF)Key function:To provide consistent quality assurance and recognition mechanisms to ensure the quality ofvocational education and training across Australia, based on a quality assured approach tothe registration of training organisations seeking to deliver training, assess competency andissue qualifications.Assessment aspects:The AQTF standards outline the requirements for RTOs in relation to all areas of assessment.Further information:www.tac.wa.gov.au or AQTF Standards for RTOs available from TACTraining PackagesKey function:To provide a consistent and reliable set of nationally endorsed components for providingtraining, recognising and assessing people’s skills. Training Packages are developed byIndustry Training Advisory Bodies (ITABs) and other industry based bodies or enterprises tomeet the identified training needs of specific industries or industry sectors. TrainingPackages implemented by RTOs as the basis for issuing nationally recognised qualificationsand Statements of Attainment will have been through a formal endorsement processmanaged by the Australian National Training Authority (ANTA).Assessment aspects:The key assessment related aspects of Training Packages are as follows:Endorsed components• competency standards• assessment guidelines• qualifications sectionNon-Endorsed components (Support materials)• assessment resources• professional development materials.Further information:www.tac.wa.gov.au or www.ntis.gov.au or to purchase Training Packages contact the relevantIndustry Training Council or Australian Training Products (contacts listed on www.ntis.gov.au).
Assessment Policy
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Competency Based Assessment
The Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF)Key function:To provide a comprehensive nationally consistent Framework for all post-compulsoryqualifications.Assessment aspects:The Framework specifies the characteristics of learning outcomes at each qualification levelas well as explaining the responsibilities for assessment and certification.Further information:www.aqf.edu.auThe Guidelines for Competency Based Assessment in vocationaleducation and training in Western AustraliaKey function:To provide clear and accessible information on national and state assessment policies andhow RTOs can ensure they comply with this policies.Assessment aspects:All assessment requirements for RTOs are noted in these Guidelines.Further information:www.training.wa.gov.au or www.tac.wa.gov.auSkills Recognition Framework for vocational education andtraining in Western AustraliaKey function:To achieve high quality, consistent provision of skills recognition services for vocationaleducation and training in Western Australia.Assessment aspects:The Framework includes principles, guidelines and minimum quality requirements for theconduct of assessments occurring for the purposes of skills recognition.Further information:www.training.wa.gov.au or www.tac.wa.gov.au
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Assessment Policy
Competency Based Assessment
Apprenticeships and Traineeships and the Australian Quality TrainingFramework – Guidelines for Registered Training OrganisationsKey function:To describe the role of RTOs in the delivery, assessment and certification of employmentbased training under the AQTF.Assessment aspects:RTOs must ensure that assessment is part of a process which is monitored and reviewed toprovide quality outcomes in employment-based training. This is achieved as part ofnegotiating the Training Program Outline.Further information:www.training.wa.gov.auBuilding Diversity GuidelinesKey function:To establish the diversity policy for vocational education and training in Western Australia.Assessment aspects:Provides assistance on how assessments can incorporate diversity and equity and accessissues.Further information:www.training.wa.gov.auFees and Charges Policy for publicly funded RTOs in Western AustraliaKey function:To set out the statutory and provider based fees and charges which apply to publicly fundedRTOs.Assessment aspects:The policy provides information for publicly funded RTOs relating to the fees and chargesapplied to clients.Further information:www.training.wa.gov.au or the Policy and Research Branch of the Department of Training.
Assessment Policy
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Competency Based Assessment
Graded Performance ProjectKey function:To establish a model for a graded performance assessment system, to meet the needs oflearners, employers and RTOs and which is consistent with the AQTF, Training Packages, theAQF and the Guidelines for Competency Based Assessment in vocational education andtraining in Western Australia. The project is currently being implemented in a number ofareas of study across Western Australia, with longer-term plans for more widespreadimplementation.Assessment aspects:The model promotes good assessment practices in accord with state and national policy, andincludes five grading criteria (derived from the AQF and Key Competencies) on a five pointscale, which the assessor uses to determine a performance grade for learners after they aredeemed competent against industry competency standards.Further information:Quality Assurance and Recognition, Department of Training or www.training.wa.gov.auSummarySection 1 of the Guidelines for Competency Based Assessment in vocational education andtraining in Western Australia summarises the key policy requirements for competency basedassessment occurring in Western Australia.
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Assessment Policy
Competency Based Assessment
Introducing CompetencyBased Assessment
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Competency Based Assessment
This Section provides an introduction to competency based assessment, specifically for thosenew to the field, and for employers and learners.What is competency?In vocational education and training, people are considered to be competent when they areable to apply their knowledge and skills to successfully complete work activities in a rangeof situations and environments, to the standard of performance expected in the workplace.Both on the job and off the job training and assessment aim to make sure that theindividual participating in the training and assessment has the competence to undertaketheir work role to the standard expected in the relevant workplace.How do we know someone is competent?We know whether someone is competent after completing a competency based assessment.Just as a learner-driver must demonstrate they can drive a car by actually taking theexaminer for a drive, so too must other learners demonstrate that they are competent byundergoing an assessment process. Assessment may involve a practical demonstration ofskills, some form of written assessment, such as a test or preparation of a report, or apresentation or interview.An individual can be assessed during their training, at the end of their training, or withouteven undertaking any training (for example if they believe they are already competent).Those being assessed are often called candidates. The method and timing of assessment willvary depending upon the assessor, the candidate and the competency being assessed.What standards are candidates assessed against?In order to assess whether a candidate is competent, they are judged against establishedstandards (often called benchmarks). These standards have been developed by industry andare called competency standards. Competency standards may also be referred to as units ofcompetency.Competency standards are documents that define the competencies required for effectiveperformance in the workplace in specific industries. Competency standards include theessential information needed to assess a candidate.Some enterprises have developed specific competency standards for their business.Section 2: IntroducingCompetency Based Assessment
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Introducing CompetencyBased Assessment
Competency Based Assessment
In order to gain a formal qualification (eg a Certificate II or a Diploma), individuals have tobe competent in a specified group of competency standards. Information on thequalifications and relevant competency standards are all outlined in industry based TrainingPackages. Training Packages consist of competency standards, information on qualificationsand assessment guidelines to assist trainers and assessors.What is competency based assessment?Competency based assessment is the process of collecting evidence and making judgementson whether competence has been achieved. This confirms that an individual can perform tothe standard expected in the workplace as expressed in the relevant endorsedindustry/enterprise competency standards (or outcomes of accredited courses if there are nocompetency standards for an industry).What sort of evidence is collected?As noted above, assessment involves collecting evidence. This evidence may be directevidence (such as observation of workplace performance), indirect evidence (such as formaltesting) or supplementary evidence (such as references from employers). This evidence isused by an assessor to make a judgement about whether the candidate is competent.It is the responsibility of the assessor to determine what and how much evidence is requiredto make the assessment judgement. Training Packages provide guidance on the types ofevidence required, and further advice may be gained through moderation and industryconsultation.What training do assessors have?Assessors need to be objective and independent and make reasonable, informed judgementsbased on the quality and sufficiency of the evidence collected. All assessors must havedemonstrated their own competence in the particular competency standards being assessedand in the following three units of competency from the Training Package in Assessmentand Workplace Training:Plan Assessment (BSZ401A)Conduct Assessment (BSZ402A)Review Assessment (BSZ403A)Assessments for nationally recognised vocational qualifications must be undertaken by anassessor working for a Registered Training Organisation (RTO) or an assessor working inpartnership with an RTO. An RTO is the only body with the authority to issue a qualification.What about a candidate who believes they arealready competent?If an individual believes they are already competent in a particular competency standard orgroup of standards, they can undertake a form of competency based assessment called SkillsRecognition (often known as Recognition of Prior Learning, Recognition of CurrentCompetencies or Credit Transfer).
Introducing CompetencyBased Assessment
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Competency Based Assessment
Skills Recognition is the term used to describe a number of assessment processes thatformally recognise the competencies an individual has acquired through formal or informallearning, work experience and/or life experience. The principles and processes involved incompetency based assessments are also involved in skills recognition processes.What results do candidates get?After someone has undergone a competency based assessment or a skills recognitionassessment, they are either deemed ‘competent’ or ‘not yet competent’. If they are deemedcompetent, they will be issued with either a Statement of Attainment listing the units ofcompetency they are competent in or a full qualification. If they are deemed not yetcompetent, they will be given feedback on their performance. All candidates have theopportunity to appeal their results and be reassessed.Why is there so much jargon?Training and assessment is a field involving a high level of knowledge and expertise. Like allother areas involving technical expertise, the training system involves jargon and somecomplex terminology and policies. A glossary of terms is provided at the back of thisdocument to help you understand the training and assessment jargon.For further information on competency based assessment, please contact a RegisteredTraining Organisation, the relevant Industry Training Advisory Board or the WA Departmentof Training (see Section 5 of this document).
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Introducing CompetencyBased Assessment
Competency Based Assessment
The Competency BasedAssessment Process
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Competency Based Assessment
IntroductionThis Section is written for assessors, particularly those less experienced in competency basedassessment, and for employers who wish to understand more about the assessment process.It is not intended to provide all the information that an assessor needs, but rather aims toprovide an introduction or reminder to assessors of some of the key processes anddocuments they need to consider when planning and conducting assessments. Assessorsrequiring more information should see Sections 4 and 5 of this document.Figure 1 shows the key issues covered in this Section which lead to the planning andconducting of an assessment activity.Section 3: The Competency BasedAssessment ProcessFigure 1: Issues covered in this SectionUNDERSTANDING COMPETENCYAND TRAINING PACKAGESUNDERSTANDINGTHE ROLE OFEVIDENCE
DESIGNING EVIDENCEGATHERINGTECHNIQUES
HAVING CONFIDENCEIN THEASSESSMENT DECISIONDOCUMENTINGTHE PROCESSADEQUATELYPLANNING ANDCONDUCTING THEASSESSMENT ACTIVITY
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The Competency BasedAssessment Process
Competency Based Assessment
Understanding Competency and Training PackagesPeople are considered to be competent when they are able to apply their knowledge andskills to successfully complete work activities in a range of situations and environments, inaccordance with the standard of performance expected in the workplace.Competency based assessment is the process of collecting evidence and makingjudgements on whether competence has been achieved. This confirms that an individual canperform to the standard expected in the workplace as expressed in the relevant endorsedindustry/enterprise competency standards (or outcomes of accredited courses if there are nocompetency standards for an industry).Competency comprises four dimensions:Task skills – performing the task to the required standardTask management skills – skills to plan and integrate a number of different tasksand achieve a work outcomeContingency management skills – the ability to respond to irregularities,breakdowns and other unanticipated occurrencesJob/role environment skills – skills to deal with the responsibilities andexpectations of the work environment (see Four Dimensions of Competency Exemplaron pages 36–37)It is important that competency based assessments assess all four dimensions ofcompetency.Most assessments will be based on competency standards from a relevant Training Package.If there is no Training Package, relevant competency standards from an accredited coursewill form the basis of the assessment. Where no competency standards exist, accreditedcourse learning outcomes form the basis of the assessment.Training Packages are developed by industry to meet the identifiable training needs ofspecific industries or industry sectors. Figure 2 shows the different components of TrainingPackages, with those most important for assessment shaded.Figure 2: Components of Training Packages
ENDORSED COMPONENTS
Competency Standards
Assessment Guidelines
Qualifications
NON-ENDORSED COMPONENTS – SUPPORT MATERIALS
Learning Strategies
Assessment Materials
Professional DevelopmentMaterials
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Competency Based Assessment
Competency standards are developed using a consistent format in all Training Packages.The components of a competency standard and their content are noted in Figure 3.
COMPONENT
CONTENT
Unit title
Defines general area of competency
Unit descriptor
Clarifies purpose of unit
Elements of competency
Outcomes that contribute to the overall unit (ie buildingblocks of unit, expressed in outcome terms)
Performance criteria
Statements for each element expressing what is to beassessed and the required level of performance
Range of Variables
The range of contexts and conditions within which thework is to be performed
Evidence Guide– critical aspects of assessment– underpinning knowledge or skills– context for assessment– assessment methods and resources– Key Competencies
Assists with the interpretation and assessment of the unitKnowledge and skills critical to successfully complete thework activityTechnical knowledge or content needed to perform thework activityWhether the unit of competency may be assessed in theworkplace or a simulated environmentSuggestions about appropriate types of assessment andsources of evidence to be collectedKey Competencies required to successfully perform thework activity (see below)
When conducting the assessment all the components of the competency standard must beconsidered.The Key Competencies (also known as Mayer Key Competencies) are employment-relatedgeneral competencies essential for effective participation in the workplace. In newercompetency standards, there is an attempt to identify more clearly how the keycompetencies are built into the standards. It should be noted that the three levels of thekey competencies do not equate to the Australian Qualification Framework levels. In generalterms, Level 1 Key Competencies are required to undertake work activities, Level 2 requiredto manage work activities and Level 3 to evaluate and reshape work activities.Assessment Guidelines provide the overall framework for the assessment of competencystandards and qualifications in the Training Package. They cover assessment systems,pathways, assessor qualifications, the design of assessment resources and the conduct ofassessments. Issues of skills recognition (ie credit transfer, exemptions, Recognition ofCurrent Competencies and Recognition of Prior Learning) are covered under this section inthe Assessment Pathways material.Figure 3: Components of Competency Standards
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The Competency BasedAssessment Process
Competency Based Assessment
Most Training Packages offer a range of qualifications which may vary in AustralianQualifications Framework (AQF) level, their degree of specialisation and the extent to whichcustomisation is permissible. Most qualifications are made up of certain core competencystandards and some elective competency standards.In considering the training delivery and assessment, trainers may want to cluster certaincompetency standards so that they can cover all relevant knowledge and skills required for aworkplace task while still maintaining the integrity of each standard. These clusters ofcompetencies can then often be assessed together.The Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) includes descriptors for each qualificationlevel. These descriptors provide guidelines for reasonable performance at a particular level.These descriptors, along with the element of competency, the performance criteria andevidence guides in competency standards, help an assessor to gauge a reasonable level ofperformance to expect from a competent candidate.Training Package Support Materials (the non-endorsed components) may include assessmentmaterials such as exemplar assessment materials, the range of assessment methods to beused or targeted assessment resources for specific groups. Information regarding theseresources is available from the relevant Industry Training Council (ITC) or Australian TrainingProducts (see Section 5).Understanding the Role of EvidenceEvidence is the information gathered which, when matched against the performance criteria,provides proof of competency. Evidence can take many forms and be gathered from anumber of sources.Evidence can be direct, indirect or supplementary, as noted in Figure 4.
FORMS OF EVIDENCE
DIRECTe.g.• Direct observation• Oral questioning• Demonstration ofspecific skillsFigure 4: Different types of evidenceINDIRECTe.g.• Assessment ofqualities of finalproduct• Review of previouswork undertaken• Written tests ofunderpinningknowledgeSUPPLEMENTARYe.g.• Testimonials fromemployers• Reports fromsupervisors• Work diary orjournal• Evidence of training• Examples of reportsor work documentsNo one form of evidence is better than another. Quality evidence is chosen appropriatelyfor the candidate and context, and meets the five ‘rules’ of evidence noted in Figure 5.
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Competency Based Assessment
There are many potential sources of evidence and many methods and techniques forgathering evidence in a competency based assessment. Figure 6 provides a sample. See alsoAssessment Material or Tool Exemplars on pages 51–62 and Checklists and Guidelines onpages 63–84.
QUALITY EVIDENCE IS:
Valid
Relates to the unit or units of competency appropriatelyReflects all four dimensions of competencyProvides evidence of the broad skills included in the Key CompetenciesAppropriate to the AQF level being assessed
Authentic
Is the candidate’s own work (ie procedures have been developed toensure this)
Consistent
Shows competency over a period of time suggesting sustainedperformance (ie not just a ‘one-off’)
Sufficient
Provides enough evidence to make a judgement about the competencyof the individual in relation to all four dimensions of competencyCovers the full range of the performance criteriaMeet all the evidence requirements
Current
Recent enough to show that the skills and knowledge are still inpractice and able to be applied to a current work situation
Figure 5: Rules of evidence
EVIDENCE GATHERING TECHNIQUE
SOURCE OF EVIDENCE
Observation
Real work activities at workplace
Simulation
Role playWork activities in simulated workplace environmentCase study
Questioning
Self-assessment formVerbal answersWritten questionnaireInterview
Review of products
Work samples/products
Portfolio
Testimonials/referencesWork samples/productsTraining recordAssessment recordJournal/work diaryLife experience information
Third party feedback
Interviews with employer, supervisor, peers
Structured activities
ProjectPresentationDemonstrationProgressive tasks
Figure 6: Different evidence gathering techniques
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The Competency BasedAssessment Process
Competency Based Assessment
A summary of the evidence presented by the candidate should be kept by the assessor in theevent of an appeal by the candidate. It is the responsibility of the RTO to establish guidelinesfor assessors on the minimum evidence recording requirements (see example on page 48).Designing Evidence Gathering TechniquesFigure 7 outlines a process that may be used to design an evidence gathering technique foran assessment.
CLUSTER UNITS OF COMPETENCY FOR ASSESSMENT
DEVELOP COMPETENCY PROFILE
IDENTIFY EVIDENCE REQUIREMENTS
REVIEW POSSIBLE EVIDENCE GATHERING TECHNIQUES
SELECT TECHNIQUES AND WRITE EVIDENCE PLAN
DOCUMENT EVIDENCE GATHERING TECHNIQUESFigure 7: Process used to determine evidence gathering techniquesReal work does not usually fall into categories that reflect individual units or elements ofcompetency. In general, a real work activity draws on a range of competencies from anumber of competency standards at once.A good assessment method will involve clustering a number of competencies to reflect areal work task (see Clustering Exemplar on page 38). The degree to which you could (or mayneed to) cluster a number of units together to reflect a real work activity will vary across allTraining Packages. Clustering should take account of the work activity, the assessmentcontext, the training and assessment arrangements for the qualification, and time, resource,facility and personnel considerations. Some Training Packages include advice on appropriateclustering of competencies. Assessors are required to have a thorough knowledge of theTraining Package they are working with.Appropriate clustering is a key way to ensure that assessments are holistic. The assessorcan gather evidence and cross-reference it across a number of competency standards.Clustering may also result in reducing the time and costs associated with assessment.Obviously, if only one unit of competency is being assessed, then clustering will not occur.
The Competency BasedAssessment Process
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Competency Based Assessment
Once the unit(s) of competency are identified the next stage of developing an evidencegathering technique is the development of a competency profile (see Competency ProfileExemplars on pages 39–40). A competency profile will provide an overall picture or imageof a competent person. In order to develop a competency profile, the assessor must drawtogether the information in the unit of competency, the AQF descriptor and the KeyCompetencies.A competency profile may be a checklist, a written description of the work activity, a list ofthe characteristics of a competent worker, or a job description for a person who will performthe activity.The next step is to identify the evidence required to determine competency (see EvidenceRequirement Exemplars on pages 41–42). The evidence selected must reflect the skills,knowledge and language encompassed in the competency profile and comply with the fiverules of evidence (that is, evidence must be valid, authentic, consistent, sufficient andcurrent). The assessor then develops a list of the evidence requirements.The list of evidence requirements can be used by the assessor to review the possibleevidence gathering techniques. That is, the assessor considers the ways in which theevidence can be collected and competency can be demonstrated for each of the evidencerequirements. In identifying the evidence gathering techniques, resources and facilitiesrequired for the assessment should be considered including any workplace simulationrequirements (see Exemplar Guidelines for Workplace Simulations on pages 56–57 andpages 70–71).Selecting the appropriate evidence gathering techniques will involve consideration of thecandidate’s needs, the nature of the work activity being assessed, the location of theassessment (to ensure a safe and accessible environment), the assessor skills and experience,and the cost implications. It is important also to consider the mode of assessment, such asflexible delivery, Skills Recognition, online, etc.It is at this stage that issues of customisation for candidate needs should be considered.For example, a candidate may have a disability which prevents them undertaking certainactivities but may still be competent in the units of competency being assessed, or thecandidate may be undertaking the assessment in a flexible delivery mode. In these instances,Reasonable Adjustments should be made to the assessment activity to ensure that thecandidate will still have the opportunity to demonstrate the competencies being assessed.Provided that quality evidence can still be collected for the assessment decision to be made,it is acceptable to adapt the evidence gathering techniques to reflect the candidate’s needsand situation. See Guidelines for assessing Distance Learners on page 81 and Checklist forSpecial Needs of Candidates on page 83.The techniques selected can be documented in an Evidence Plan, outlining the evidencegathering technique, the candidate’s tasks, and the evidence requirements (see Evidence PlanExemplars on pages 43–45).It is important that the evidence gathering techniques are documented. Materials forcollecting and analysing evidence are often described as assessment tools or instruments.
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The Competency BasedAssessment Process
Competency Based Assessment
In general, the term assessment tool is now used to describe a document that containsboth:the instructions for gathering and interpreting evidence – ie the material that helpsset up an assessment event, including the instructions for the assessorthe assessment instrument – ie the material that describes, measures and recordsoutcomes or evidence for each assessment event or activity.For example, if the evidence gathering technique being used is a workplace observationfollowed by a brief interview, then the assessment tool might consist of:instructions identifying the activities to be undertaken by the candidate, the key pointsto be observed and the performance issues to be considered by the assessor, anda proforma which includes a checklist for the key observation points and performancecriteria, and a series of questions and checklist for responses on underpinningknowledge for the interview.Other assessment materials might include information on projects, case studies, simulationactivities, checklists for third party evidence, self-assessment forms or portfolio requirements(see Assessment Material and Tool Exemplars on pages 51–62). All assessment materialsshould be flexible, fair, safe and cost-effective (see Checklist and Guideline Exemplars onpages 63–86).Assessment strategies and tools need to be developed in consultation with industry andtested on an appropriate sample of candidates.It is at this stage that an Assessment Plan can be developed (see Assessment Plan Exemplaron page 46). Assessment Plans are provided to candidates at the commencement of thetraining or assessment process. In the case of traineeships and apprenticeships, the TrainingProgram Outline will meet many of the requirements of the Assessment Plan. AssessmentPlans are referred to in the case of an appeal by the candidate.Assessment Plans should contain the following information:What will be assessed (ie elements or units of competency)How assessment will occur (ie what tools will be used)When assessment will occurWhere assessment will occur (ie the context of the assessment)The criteria for decision making (ie performance criteria)And, where appropriate, any supplementary criteria used to make a judgement on thelevel of performance (see Graded Performance information on page 85).The process noted above is suitable for all forms of competency based assessment, includingRecognition of Current Competencies or Prior Learning assessments, and other modes offlexible delivery such as distance and online assessments.
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Competency Based Assessment
Having Confidence in the Assessment DecisionFigure 8 demonstrates the main components necessary to ensure that any assessmentdecision is a good one.As many assessors will note, experienced assessors rarely evaluate evidence against thestandards on an element by element or performance criteria by performance criteria basis.Using their expertise and appropriate assessment tools, assessors generally synthesise theevidence before them in a systematic way and holistically relate it to the competencystandard requirements.It is important to note that whilst the process of holistic assessment is encouraged,assessors must be confident that a candidate is demonstrating competence against allelements and performance criteria outlined in the standard.Figure 8: Factors maximising confidence in assessment decisionsVerification andmoderation processeshave been used,such as:• Internnal assessormeetings• Participation inindustry forums• Appropriatearrangements forauspiced assessments• Use of checklists orassessmentverification activities• Appropriatedocumentation
The assessment is:• Valid• Reliable• Flexible• Fair
The evidenceaccurately reflects:• Requirements ofcompetencystandards• Applications in Rangeof Variablesstatement• Real workplacerequirements• All four dimensionsof competency• Key Competencies• Appropriate AQF level• And is valid,authentic, consistent,sufficient and currentAssessment proceduresand decisions arerecorded, reviews andimprovedCONFIDENCEINASSESSMENTDECISIONSConfidence in assessment decisions is enhanced when verification or moderation processesare used. The verification and moderation processes noted in Figure 8 are selected for thepurposes of illustration and are not the only processes possible. To maintain the quality andconsistency of assessments, all RTOs should have established policies and proceduresregarding verification/moderation. Many industries also have industry specific moderation orinformation sharing forums.Competency based assessments must be valid, reliable, flexible and fair.
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The Competency BasedAssessment Process
Competency Based Assessment
Validity refers to the extent to which the interpretation and use of an assessment outcomecan be supported by evidence. An assessment is valid if the assessment methods andmaterials reflect the elements of competency, performance criteria and evidence guide in thecompetency standard, and if the assessment outcome is fully supported by the evidencegathered.Reliability refers to the degree of consistency and accuracy of the assessment outcomes.That is, the extent to which the assessment could provide similar outcomes for candidateswith equal competence at different times or places, regardless of the assessor conductingthe assessment.If assessments are both valid and reliable, then they should be consistent across RTOs as wellas within an RTO. Reliable and valid assessments share a number of characteristics,including:assessing all four dimensions of competencyusing a process which integrates knowledge and skills with their practical applicationfor a workplace task (ie holistic assessment)being based on evidence gathered on a number of occasions and in a range ofcontextscovering both on and off the job components of trainingproviding for the recognition of competencies no matter how or when they have beenacquired.Flexibility refers to the opportunity for a candidate to negotiate certain aspects of theirassessment (for example, timing) with their assessor. All candidates should be fully informed(through the Assessment Plan) of the purpose of assessment, the assessment criteria,methods and tools used, and the context and timing of the assessment.An assessment is fair when it does not disadvantage particular learners or groups oflearners. This may mean that assessment methods are adjusted for particular learners(such as people with disabilities or cultural differences) to ensure that the method does notdisadvantage them because of their situation. An assessment should not place unnecessarydemands on learners that may prevent a candidate from demonstrating competence(for example, an assessment should not demand a higher level of English language orliteracy than that which is required to perform to workplace standard, as outlined in thecompetencies being assessed). (See also Checklist for validity, reliability, flexibility andfairness on pages 64–66.)It is important that all assessment procedures, tools, materials and decisions are documentedin accord with RTO policy, to enable them to be reviewed and improvements made.A review process should be developed by the RTO and/or industry and RTO personnel shouldbe involved in the review. A range of assessment decisions made for similar performancestandards need to be reviewed to note any discrepancies and inconsistencies. Reviewactivities must be documented and acted upon to improve assessment decisions andconsistency. For example, assessment procedures or tools may need to be modified, orassessors may need to meet more regularly for assessment moderation activities.
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Competency Based Assessment
Documenting the Process AdequatelyFigure 9 notes some of the documentation that might result from the processes noted above(see Self Audit Exemplars on pages 67–69). Some examples of these documents are providedin Section 4 and further examples can be found in the resources noted in Section 5.
DOCUMENTATION
PURPOSE
Copies of relevantTraining Package
To be available to assessors for reference at alltimes. Available from ITC.
Competency profile
Prepared by assessor to assist in determiningevidence requirements. See pages 26, 39–40.
List of evidence requirementsand evidence plan
Prepared by assessor to assist in selectingappropriate evidence gathering techniques.See pages 27, 41–45.
Materials, checklists or tools forcollecting and analysing evidence
Developed or adapted by assessor to be usedin the actual assessment activity.See pages 27, 51–62.
Assessment Plan
Prepared by assessor and to be given tocandidate in advance. See pages 29, 46–47.
Record of evidence presented andsamples of evidence collected
Collected and documented by assessor tocorroborate assessment result, used inmoderation/verification processes and in caseof an appeal. See pages 25, 33–34, 48.
Record and reporting ofassessment decision
Documented by assessor, qualification/Statement of Attainment issued by RTO, resultsto be supplied to candidate by RTO.See pages 33–34, 49–50.
Feedback checklist or proforma forcandidate
To be completed and given to candidate duringfeedback discussion by the assessor.See pages 33–34 and see Guide 1: TrainingPackage Assessment Materials Kit, Chapter 7.
Appeals information
To be provided to candidate at the beginningof the process by assessor or delegated personwithin the RTO and during feedback discussion.See pages 33–34.
Figure 9: Assessment related documentation
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The Competency BasedAssessment Process
Competency Based Assessment
Planning and Conducting the Assessment ActivityWith the development work done, the assessor can now plan and conduct the assessmentactivity. Figure 10 demonstrates the steps likely to occur in planning and then conductingan assessment activity.
PLAN ASSESSMENT
PREPARE CANDIDATE
CONDUCT ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY
PROVIDE FEEDBACK AND APPEALS AND REASSESSMENT INFORMATION
RECORD AND REPORT RESULTS
REVIEW ASSESSMENTFigure 10: Steps in planning and conducting an assessment activity.When planning an assessment activity, the assessor needs to ensure:the candidate is ready for assessmentthe assessment tools or materials have been trialed with an appropriate sample ofpeople in advanceassessment procedures have been ratified with appropriate personnel in theindustry/workplace or training organisation where appropriatethe time and place for assessment have been agreed with the candidate and any otherrelevant partiesthe needs of the candidate have been determined and any Reasonable or AllowableAdjustments have been made to the assessment (see Guidelines for Assessing DistanceLearners on page 81 and the Checklist for Special Needs of Candidates on page 83)all appropriate personnel are advised of the assessment.
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Competency Based Assessment
When preparing the candidate, the assessor needs to ensure:the context and purpose of assessment have been agreed with the candidatethe candidate has seen the Assessment Plan and any other appropriate documentationthe relevant performance standards have been provided and explained to the candidatethe assessment procedure and expectations of the candidate have been clarified andagreed between candidate and assessorany legal or ethical responsibilities associated with the assessment are explained to thecandidate or other relevant partiesthe appeals process is explained to the candidateinformation is conveyed using language and techniques to communicate effectivelywith the candidate and other relevant partiesthe need for any additional evidence gathering is identified.When conducting the assessment activity, the assessor needs to ensure:the assessment is conducted in accordance with the assessment planevidence specified in the assessment procedure is gathered using the agreed tools ormaterialsevidence is gathered in accordance with reasonable or allowable adjustments whereapplicableevidence is evaluated in terms of validity, authenticity, sufficiency, currency, andconsistencyevidence is evaluated according to the elements, performance criteria, and evidenceguide from the unit/s of competency, all four dimensions of competency, the keycompetencies, and the ability to transfer and apply skills and knowledge to newcontextsassistance from more experienced assessors or industry experts is sought if appropriatethe assessment decision is made in accordance with the specified criteria.the evidence is documented and recorded appropriately, in accord with RTO policyWhen providing feedback the assessor needs to ensure:clear and constructive feedback is given to the candidate using appropriate languageand strategiesfeedback includes guidance on overcoming gaps in competency or further goals ortraining opportunities if appropriatethe candidate is given information on reassessment opportunities and the appealsprocessany assessment decision dispute is reported to the appropriate personnel withinthe RTO.
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The Competency BasedAssessment Process
Competency Based Assessment
RTOs must have an Appeals Policy which allows candidates to challenge the assessmentdecision and enables them to be reassessed. A reasonable non-refundable fee will becharged by the RTO in order to discourage frivolous appeal but not high enough to prohibitappeals. The grounds for an appeal are:the judgement as to whether competency has been achieved and demonstrated wasmade incorrectly, andthe judgement was not made in accordance with the Assessment Plan.When recording results, the assessor needs to ensure:assessment results are recorded accurately and follow RTO record keeping policies andproceduresconfidentiality of assessment outcomes is maintainedappropriate documentation (eg Training Record Book and/or evidence pro-forma) iscompleted.When reviewing the assessment activity, the assessor needs to ensure:the candidate’s feedback on the assessment activity is soughtpositive and negative features experienced in conducting the assessment are conveyedto those responsible for the assessment proceduresuggestions for improving the assessment process are made to appropriate personnelor changes are made to the assessment process and materials for future candidates.verification and moderation processes are implemented in accord with RTO policy.SummaryThis Section has provided a brief overview of some of the key processes involved incompetency based assessment. For further information, please see the exemplars in Section4 or follow up with the resources noted in Section 5.
Exemplar Materials
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Competency Based Assessment
IntroductionThis Section provides a selected number of examples of assessment-related materials, checklistsand tools. It should be noted that, whilst providing examples of good practice, these materialswill need to be adapted for use in different industries, qualification levels and contexts.Additional examples and checklists will be found in the resources noted in Section 5.The Department of Training, the State Training Board and Training Accreditation Council wouldlike to acknowledge the Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, the AustralianNational Training Authority, the Department of Training and VETASSESS for the provision ofthese exemplars.Contents for Section 41 Four dimensions of competency…………………………………………………………………………………………….362 Clustering units of competency for assessment…………………………………………………………………383. Competency profile……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………394. Evidence requirements………………………………………………………………………………………………………………415. Evidence Plans…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….436. Assessment Plan…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………467. Recording Evidence……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………488. Reporting – Issuing qualifications and Statements of Attainment………………………………..499. Assessment Materials or Tools………………………………………………………………………………………………..51i. Direct observation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….52ii. Simulation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….56iii. Oral Questioning ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….58iv. Project based assessment……………………………………………………………………………………………59v. Portfolio ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….60vi. Self-assessment…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….6210. Checklists and guidelines …………………………………………………………………………………………………………63i. Checklist for validity, reliability, fairness and flexibility……………………………………….64ii. Self audit format ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….67iii. Guidelines for workplace simulation………………………………………………………………………..70iv. Use of third party evidence and third party evidence form……………………………….72v. Workplace assessment checklist………………………………………………………………………………..75vi. Effective questioning guidelines ……………………………………………………………………………….76vii. Guidelines for developing knowledge based tests ………………………………………………..78viii. Assessment Planning Guidelines……………………………………………………………………………….79ix. Guidelines for assessing distance learners ……………………………………………………………..81x. Checklist for special needs of candidates……………………………………………………………….8311. Graded Performance Model Overview …………………………………………………………………………………..85Section 4: Exemplar Materials
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Exemplar Materials
Competency Based Assessment
1. Four dimensions of competencyThis example demonstrates how a unit of competency covers all four dimensions of competency.The extract from the unit of competency is reproduced in the standard format first. Then theunit is analysed to show all four dimensions of competency.The unit is from the Laboratory Operations Training Package – Perform Basic Tests PML ORG600. This unit of competency covers the ability to perform basic tests and/or procedures usingstandard methods.
ELEMENTS
PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
1. Receive,label andstoresamples fortesting.
1.1 Label laboratory samples to ensure information is transcribedaccurately and legibly.1.2 Register samples into laboratory system1.3 Record sample testing requirements.1.4 Maintain sample integrity and eliminate cross-contamination.
2. Preparesample.
2.1 Identify materials to be tested, appropriate standard methodand safety requirements2.2 Use personal protective equipment as specified for standardmethod and material to be tested.2.3 Record sample description; compare with specification,record and report discrepancies.2.4 Prepare sample in accordance with appropriate standardmethods.
3 Performtests onsamples.
3.1 Check calibration status of equipment and calibrate ifapplicable.3.2 Perform sequence of tests to be performed as per standardmethod.3.3 Identify, prepare and weigh or measure sample andstandards to be tested.3.4 Set up test reagents or equipment/instrumentation as perstandard method.3.5 Conduct tests in accordance with enterprise procedures.3.6 Record results in accordance with enterprise procedures3.7 Identify and report out of specification or atypical resultspromptly to appropriate personnel.3.8 Clean and care for test equipment.3.9 Store unused reagents as required by relevant regulationsand codes.3.10 Dispose of wastes in accordance with safety, enterprise andenvironmental requirements.
Exemplar Materials
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Competency Based Assessment
1. Four dimensions of competencyIdentifying the Four Dimensions of Competency– Perform Basic Tests PML ORG 600
TASK SKILLS
TASK MANAGEMENT SKILLS
This requires performance of the task[s]to the required standard as described inthe unit of competency and expected inthe workplace.
Captures the skills used as people planand integrate a number of potentiallydifferent tasks to achieve a completework outcome.
Assessor needs to collect evidence thatthe candidate can do the individualactions as well as the whole task.
Candidates should provide evidence thatthey can work efficiently to meetdeadlines, handle a sequence ofinterrelated tasks and progress smoothlybetween tasks.
PMLTEST 300 – the task skills involve theperformance of basic tests to therequired standard.
PMLTEST300 – task management skills• arranging the sequence of workefficiently eg: moving throughelements 1 – 3 or• carrying out tasks simultaneously eg:preparing additional samples [element2] while test are running [element 3]
CONTINGENCY MANAGEMENT SKILLS
JOB/ROLE ENVIRONMENT SKILLS
The requirement to respond toirregularities and breakdowns in routines.
The requirement to deal with theresponsibilities and expectations of thework environment.
Candidates should show evidence of dealingwith contingencies eg: breakdowns,irregularities, imperfections or the unknown.
The capacity to work with others andadapt to different situations is central tosuccessful performance.
PMLTEST300 – Assessor may use questionssuch as:• What if the sample label is incomplete?• What if the results you obtain areoutside the acceptable range?• What if equipment is not calibratedcorrectly?
• Does the candidate comply withworkplace procedures and standardmethods in performing the task?• Does the candidate communicateeffectively with others?• Does the candidate observe enterpriseand regulatory requirements?
In the workplace can the candidateperform the work and answer questionswith confidence?
PMLTEST300 – candidates are to followinstructions [elements 1-3] andcommunicate with others[performance criteria 1.1, 2.3, 3.6].
Adapted from Manufacturing Learning Australia – Assessment Solutions, © DETYA, 2000
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Exemplar Materials
Competency Based Assessment
2. Clustering Units of Competency for AssessmentThis example shows how a number of units of competency can be clustered to reflect a realwork activity.From Guide 1: Training Package Assessment Materials Kit, Page 16, © DETYA 2001
In the assessment process for the Certificate III in Hospitality (Commercial Cookery),candidates provide evidence of competency for a number of units of competency inone activity. For example, when making a fish stock they draw on the followingcompetencies:
THHCOR03A Follow health, safety and security proceduresTHHCOO01A Develop and update hospitality industry knowledgeTHHCOR03A Follow workplace hygiene proceduresTHHBKAO1A Organise and prepare foodTHHBKA04A Clean and maintain premisesTHHBCC01A Use basic methods of cookeryTHHBCC11A Implement food safety proceduresTHHCOR01A Work with colleagues and customersTHHCOR02A Work in a socially diverse environment.An assessor may use one assessment activity, involving observation and questioning,to gather evidence for these units of competency.
Exemplar Materials
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Competency Based Assessment
3. Competency ProfileThese examples show two different ways in which a competency profile can be developed.Competency Profile: Record and Store DataA laboratory assistant in a materials testing laboratory was performing routine tensiletests on samples of vinyl sheet. The assistant converted the readings from the machineto appropriate units using a simple calculation and recorded them in the logbook forthat test method. After comparing these test results with previous results for the sametype of vinyl material, the assistant found that the tensile strength was within therequired range. However, it was at the lower rather than the upper end of the range asin previous testing.The assistant discussed the results with the laboratory supervisor. The calibration file forthat machine showed that it had been calibrated four months previously and had notneeded adjustment. Test results for the same period showed that the machine wasgiving lower than normal tensile strength readings for the few higher strength materialstested over the last two months. The assistant did some more checks and confirmed thistrend. The machine was re-calibrated by the instrument company and the frequency ofinternal calibration checks by the laboratory assistant was increased.This problem would not have been detected or corrected as quickly without theassistant’s competent recording and retrieval of test results and calibration information,and initiative.From Guide 1: Training Package Assessment Materials Kit, Page 31 © DETYA 2001.
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Exemplar Materials
Competency Based Assessment
3. Competency ProfileCompetency Profile: Deliver training sessions and train small groups
A COMPETENT PERSON CAN:
A PERSON WHO IS NOT YETCOMPETENT MAY:
Plan training programs based on:• a set of standards• identified training needsDeliver training:• using a range of appropriate deliverymethods and learning materials whichwill facilitate learning• actively involving participants in thesession• providing opportunities for practice inskills development• taking into consideration thecharacteristics of learners, particularlylanguage and literacy needs• informing learners about the natureof the training and assessment• providing constructive feedback tolearners about progress towardcompetence.Use feedback from learners, otherstakeholders and self-evaluation toimprove delivery.
Plan training programs that are not basedon an analysis of training needs or a setof standards.Deliver training using a limited range ofdelivery methods and learning materialswhich may not:• take into account student or trainerneeds or availability of resources• provide opportunities for skillsdevelopment through practice• inform students about the purpose ofthe training or assessment• give students feedback on progressGet feedback from learners but not use itto improve the program or to recommendchanges to program developers.Engage in limited self-evaluation but notuse it to improve planning or delivery.
From Guide 1: Training Package Assessment Materials Kit, Page 32 © DETYA 2001.
Exemplar Materials
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Competency Based Assessment
4. Evidence RequirementsThe following two examples list the evidence required and possible evidence gatheringtechniques for assessing two different units of competency.Evidence Requirements for Unit of Competency Perform Basic Test(From Laboratory Operations)
EVIDENCE REQUIREMENTS:
POSSIBLE EVIDENCE GATHERINGTECHNIQUE:
Consistently receives, labels and storessamples for testing in accordance with SOPsand enterprise requirementsDemonstrates the required underpinningknowledge to support performance of tasksskills
Work related practical task
Performs a variety of tests on samples inaccordance with SOP and enterprisestandards.Calibrates equipment in accordance withSOP and enterprise standards.Performs all stages of a variety of testingtasksPerforms a variety of testing taskssimultaneouslyPerforms defined work tasks under generalor routine supervisionPerforms defined work tasks in accordancewith occupational health and safetyrequirementsResponds to contingency situations inaccordance with enterprise standardsDemonstrates the required underpinningknowledge to support performance of tasksskillsWorks effectively in team situationsdemonstrating appropriate communicationand interpersonal skills
Work related performance
From Participants’ Guide Graded Performance Assessment System ProfessionalDevelopment Workshop 4, © Department of Training 2001
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4. Evidence RequirementsTargeting Evidence for Unit of Competency Produce Business Documents
Unit of Competency:BSBCMN306AProduce business documents
Candidate’s name:
EVIDENCE REQUIREMENTS
POTENTIAL SOURCES OF EVIDENCE
• Produce a range of businessdocuments to meetprofessional standards andorganisational needs
• View documents the candidate has recentlyproduced.• Candidate produces one or more documents tospecific requirements.• Candidate is aware of work cycles and employerrequirements for business documents.• Check with supervisor or other clients to verifythe work samples are the candidate’s own work.
• Select document designs andresources for purpose,organisational requirementsand efficiency
• Candidate explains how the designs fordocuments were worked out.• View documents the candidate has recentlyproduced.• Ask supervisor for feedback about quality andpresentation of candidate’s work.
• Use equipment and softwarefeatures to achieve designsefficiently, accurately andconsistently
• Candidate can explain the advantages of specificsoftware features.• Candidate can demonstrate and explain specificsoftware features.• See electronic files the candidate has produced.
• Check documents for errorsand consistency
• Candidate can demonstrate interpreting proofmarks and making corrections to a file.• Ask supervisor for feedback about candidate’srate of errors in finished work.
• Follow basic file managementprocedures for retrieving,creating, saving and storingfiles
• View computer to see how candidate organisesand stores files.• Ask supervisor for feedback about howcandidate follows expected procedures.
• Self-manage tasks and usehelp resources for solvingproblems
• Candidate lists self-help resources used.• Candidate demonstrates use of online helpresource for a given problem.
• Apply OHS procedures forusing equipment
• Observe candidate’s work station.• Candidate describes and points out applicationof OHS procedures.
From Guide 1: Training Package Assessment Materials Kit, Page 45 © DETYA 2001.
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5. Evidence PlansThe following two examples of Evidence Plans are based on the same units of competency asthe examples of Evidence Required. A third example of an Evidence Plan is then providedfor a supervisory higher level unit of competency (AQF level 6).Evidence Table
Unit/s:Candidate:
BSBCMN306A Produce business documents
From Guide 1: Training Package Assessment Materials Kit, Page 46 © DETYA 2001.
WHAT ARE THE EVIDENCEREQUIREMENTS?
HOW THE EVIDENCEWILL BE GATHERED?
WHAT CAN THECANDIDATE DO?
Select document designs andresources for purpose,organisational requirementsand efficiencySelf manage tasks and usehelp resources for solvingproblems.
Interview candidate about:knowledge of resourcesand planning for designrequirementsselecting layout and typestylesdealing with technicalproblems and learningabout software.
Identify organisational andresource requirements forbusiness documentsproduced.Check knowledge ofsoftware features.Think about problems thatoccur and how toovercome them.
Check documents for errorsand consistencyApply OHS procedures forusing equipment
Complete checklist forobserving OHS procedures.Set task for usingproofreader’s marks tomake corrections todocuments.
Identify relevant OHSprocedures.Identify commonproofreader’s marks.Practise making correctionsto type and layout styles.
Produce a range of businessdocuments to meetprofessional standards andorganisational needsUse equipment and softwarefeatures to achieve designsefficiently, accurately andconsistentlyFollow basic filemanagement procedures forretrieving, creating, savingand storing files
Candidate prepares aportfolio of:productsoffice process related tothe production of businessdocumentsfeedback on meetingorganisationalrequirements and ability tomanage tasksrelevant trainingcompleted.
Collect examples of:finished documentsspecifications, workinstructions, planningnotesdocuments that staterelevant trainingcompletedletters from clients orsupervisors.
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5. Evidence PlansEvidence TableUnit/s: PML Test 300 Perform Basic Tests
EVIDENCEGATHERING TASK
TASK
EVIDENCE REQUIREMENTS
Work RelatedPerformance
Observation of candidateperforming two specifiedtests and completion ofassociated reports in livework situation.Oral questioning byassessor on test andreporting proceduresconducted at same timeas observation ofcandidate.Structured interview withworkplace supervisor.
Performs tests on samples inaccordance with SOP and enterprisestandards.Calibrates equipment in accordancewith SOP and enterprise standards.Performs all stages of testing tasksPerforms different testing taskssimultaneouslyPerforms defined work tasks undergeneral or routine supervisionPerforms defined work tasks inaccordance with occupational healthand safety requirementsResponds to contingency situationsin accordance with enterprisestandardsDemonstrates the requiredunderpinning knowledge to supportperformance of tasks skillsWorks effectively in team situationsdemonstrating appropriatecommunication and interpersonalskills.
Work Activity:_____________________________ Perform Basic Tests______________
From Participants’ Guide Graded Performance Assessment System ProfessionalDevelopment Workshop 4, © Department of Training 2001
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5. Evidence PlanPML ORG 600A
Evidence Plan
Name of candidate
Unit(s)
PML ORG 600A
Registered Training Organisation
Sources ofEvidence
Agreed Evidence
Received
A1 Practicaldemonstration
Practical demonstration to assessor of one team meeting,and an induction of new employeePractical demonstration of remedying equipment failure(observed by manager, as opportunity presents)
A2 Third partyreports
Manager, Capital Laboratory Supplies
A3 Questioning/interview
Oral questions to be framed
B1 Personalstatement/ resume
To be provided/vital for Element 2
B2 Workplacedocuments (verified)
Two recent reports to QA Committee, two quarterly audit reports,staff roster, production record (actual vs target) over fourquarters, annual training plan for personnel, annual operationalplan (to flag personal contributions), annual operatingbudget with variations explained, maintenance program …
B3 Training records
‘Train Small Groups’ qualification (Element 4), projectmanagement course outline (Elements 3, 4)
B4 Case studies
See notes below
B5 Projects
See notes below
B6 Journal/diary
Not required
B7 Testimonials/awards
QA Committee award for excellence
Additional activity/exercises:Simulation of complex problem solving in workplace (manager to define a relevant problem)Projects to review staff development processes and identification of wastage reduction strategyCase study: candidate will work with Division Manager to develop budget in next planning cycle.
Arrangements:Assessor will observe team meeting scheduled for March 16 and induction of new employee onMarch 20Manager on leave February 23-28Manager will use observation checklist prepared by assessor when a maintenance problem arisesAssessor to approach supplier for a third party report.
Evidence to be submitted by April 16Interview date April 26I agree to the Evidence Plan:Candidate ……………………………………. Supervisor …………………………………….Assessor ……………………………………… (signatures)
From Guide 2: Assessing Competencies in Higher Qualifications. Page 42 © DETYA 2001
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6. Assessment PlanThis example shows how an Assessment Plan might look. Following this example, anAssessment Plan template is provided.Assessment Task 4 Workers’ Induction KitAssessment type: Group projectAssessor: Jane Assessor (assessors will form a team to assess booklet)Units of competency/elements to be assessed:FNBFSO5A: Apply health & safety practices in the workplaceFollow workplace procedures for hazard identification and risk controlContribute to participative arrangements for the management of health & safetyEmploy safe working practicesFNBFSO3A: Work as part of a teamParticipate in and cooperate with others in the workgroupManage selfFNBFSO4A: Use technology in the workplaceUtilise office technologyUse appropriate softwareBrief description of task:Students work in teams of three to create an induction booklet for beginning workers inthe industry detailing the OH&S practices that are to be followed in a workplace.Documents from the workplace or work placement and research are to be used todevelop the booklet. Assessment will be on the content and layout of the finishedproduct and also the teamwork demonstrated during the development of the product.Duration: 8 weeks. Assessment in week 6.Minimum resources required:Access to workstation, application software, printer, organisation style guide, bank ofimages (eg for workstation exercises), documents containing relevant OH&S informationwhich may be copied and pasted.Instructions for candidates:Students have received detailed specifications of the content to be included in thebooklet and the style to be used.
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6. Assessment Plan TemplateASSESSMENT PLANAssessment task:Assessment method:Assessor/s:Date of assessment:Units of competency/elements to be assessed:Brief description of task:Resources required:Instructions for candidates:From Guide 10: Quality Assurance Guide for Assessment, Page 67 © DETYA 2001
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7. Recording EvidencePRO-FORMA FOR RECORDING EVIDENCE(as a minimum, the information contained in this Pro-forma must be completed)RTO Name:Date:Applicant Name:Assessed on (date):By (Assessor Name):Against the followingunit(s) of competence/modules:and has been assessed as having acquiredthe skills and knowledge for the followingqualification / Statement(s) of Attainment:On the basis of the following evidence:Portfolio of evidence * Comment:Skills demonstration * Place: Date:Video / audio * Comment:Certificates * Comment:Reference: * Comment:Other: * Comment:Comments:Signed: Date:Workplace Assessor
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8. ReportingThe Australian Qualifications Framework provides suggested formats for both qualificationsand Statements of Attainment. These are reproduced below. Further details on reportingcan be found in the Australian Qualifications Framework.Suggested Form: QualificationsNAME AND LOGO OF ISSUING BODY (RTO for VET sector)This is to certify thatJANE SMITHhas fulfilled the requirements forCERTIFICATE IV (or other qualification)inINDUSTRY DESCRIPTOR (eg Metals and Engineering)OCCUPATIONAL STREAM (eg Fabrication)Dated …..Authorised SignatoryIssuing BodyNationally Recognised Training logo (for VET sector)State Training Authority logo (for VET sector)achieved through New Apprenticeship arrangements (if relevant)State Statutory Authority logo (for schools sector)The qualification certified herein is recognised within theAustralian Qualifications FrameworkFrom Australian Qualifications Framework Implementation Handbook, Page 74,Second Edition, 1998
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8. ReportingSuggested Form: Statement of AttainmentNAME AND LOGO OF ISSUING BODY (RTO for VET sector)This is a statement thatJANE SMITHhas been assessed as having fulfilledthe following requirements(list unit(s) of competency attained)in partial completion of the following qualificationCERTIFICATE IV (or other qualification)inINDUSTRY DESCRIPTOROCCUPATIONAL STREAMDated …..Authorised SignatoryIssuing BodyNationally Recognised Training logo (for VET sector)State Training Authority logo (for VET sector)achieved through New Apprenticeship arrangements (if relevant)State Statutory Authority logo (for schools sector)This Statement of Attainment is recognised within theAustralian Qualifications FrameworkFrom Australian Qualifications Framework Implementation Handbook, Page 76,Second Edition, 1998
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9. Assessment Materials or ToolsThis set of exemplar materials provides sample assessment materials and tools for thefollowing types of assessment activities:Direct observation
iiiiiivvvi
SimulationOral QuestioningProject based assessmentPortfolioSelf-assessment.
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i. Assessment Materials and Tools –Direct ObservationObservation Checklist for Orientation to Aged Care Work
Candidate name:
Anna Simpson
Assessor name:
June Walters
Unit of competency:
CHCA3A Orientation to Aged Care Work
Workplace:
Golden Square Aged Care Services
Date of assessment:
12 June
Procedure:
Greeting customers at their home
During the performance of skills did the candidate:• present for work at the appropriate time?• present for work in a clean and tidy manner?• greet the client using their preferred name?• use appropriate non-verbal communication?• consult the client about his/her preferred routine for the day?
Yes No N/A
The candidate’s performance was:
Not Satisfactory
Satisfactory
Feedback to candidate:Demonstrated lack of confidence in communicating with clients, although all procedures covered.Areas of improvement suggested: building relationship with the client, checking the client’sunderstanding, needs or possible problems; feeling more positive and relaxed around the client.Anna admitted feeling nervous today and is OK to keep practising these skills and attitudes.Agreed to a repeat observation in one month’s time.
Candidate’s signature:
Assessor’s signature:
From Guide 1: Training Package Assessment Materials Kit, Page 52 © DETYA 2001
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i. Assessment Materials and Tools –Direct ObservationObservation checklist and supporting questions formobile crane operationsIn this case the checklist (on page 54) identifies a series of “observation points” for assessingmobile crane operations. This checklist is based on a cluster of units from the Transport andDistribution Training Package TDT97A. These are
TDT D1 97ATDT E8 97ATDT F1 97ATDT F2 97ATDT G1 97ATDT I2 97
Shift materials safelyProcess workplace documentsFollow occupational health and safety proceduresConduct housekeeping activitiesWork effectively with othersApply customer service skills.
The observation checklist is supported by a list of performance questions (on page 51) whichare derived from the Evidence Guides in the six units of competency. These questions focuson the four dimensions of competency, such as contingency management skills (what wouldyou do if you started to feel tired?), job/role environment skills (what are the procedures andpolicies for housekeeping?) and task management skills (what are your functions when youassist with the setting up and dismantling of mobile cranes?).
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i. Assessment Materials and Tools –Direct ObservationObservation checklist – Supervise Mobile Crane Operations
Candidate name:
Assessor name:
Unit of competency:
Name of Workplace:
Date of assessment:
Procedure:
Observation of the candidate in assisting in mobile craneoperations, including the setting up and dismantling of thecrane, stowing and maintenance of gear, housekeeping ofcrane and lifting site and assistance in lifting operations.
During the demonstration of skills, did the candidate:
Yes No N/A
• follow OH&S procedures related to the operation of amobile crane under close Supervision?• assist with housekeeping procedures both on the vehicleand lifting site?• assist with the setting up and dismantling of the mobile crane?• assist with the transport and operation of the mobile crane?• work effectively within the mobile crane team?• carry out the required calculations accurately?• apply customer service procedures and policies when dealingwith clients?
The candidate’s performance was:
Not Satisfactory
Satisfactory
Feedback to candidate:
Candidate’s signature:
Assessor’s signature:
TDT D1 97A Shift materials safelyTDT E8 97A Process workplace documentsTDT F1 97A Follow occupational health and safety proceduresTDT F2 97A Conduct housekeeping activitiesTDT G1 97A Work effectively with othersTDT I2 97 Apply customer service skillsFrom Guide 1: Training Package Assessment Materials Kit, Page 54 © DETYA 2001
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i. Assessment Materials and Tools –Direct ObservationQuestions to support observation checklist –Supervise Mobile Crane Observation
Candidate name:
Assessor name:
Unit of competency:
Name of Workplace:
Date of assessment:
Satisfactory ResponseYes No
Questions to be answered by the candidate:
Q1. a) What are the procedures and policies for housekeepingin a mobile crane vehicle depot and lifting site?b) What are your responsibilities for applying them?Q2. What are your functions when you assist with the settingup and dismantling of mobile cranes?Q3. What would you do if you started to feel tired while you wereassisting in the setting up and dismantling of a mobile crane?Q4. What would you do if you found that the crane or liftinggear is defective or faulty?Q5. What would you do if a customer complained to you aboutan aspect of a lifting job on which you were working?
The candidate’s performance was:
Not Satisfactory
Satisfactory
Feedback to candidate:
Candidate’s signature:
Assessor’s signature:
TDT D1 97A Shift materials safelyTDT E8 97A Process workplace documentsTDT F1 97A Follow occupational health and safety proceduresTDT F2 97A Conduct housekeeping activitiesTDT G1 97A Work effectively with othersTDT I2 97 Apply customer service skillsFrom Guide 1: Training Package Assessment Materials Kit, Page 55 © DETYA 2001
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ii. Assessment Materials and Tools – SimulationHAZARDOUS SPILL RESPONSE SIMULATIONUnit of competencyThis activity is based on the following elements from the unit of competency AUM9001 –Monitor and Maintain Workplace Environment from the Certificate II in AutomotiveManufacture:• AUM9001A.2 – Use appropriate personnel protective equipment• AUM9001A.4 – Take appropriate action to deal with hazards and potential hazards inthe workplace• AUM9001A.5 – Complete incident investigation reports as/when required.• AUM9001A.6 – Follow emergency proceduresScenarioWorking in a team situation candidates are to demonstrate the safe procedure forcleaning up a small hazardous spill.Instructions to the assessorLocation: This exercise is to be carried out in a designated area for the simulation.Resources required:1 – Spill response kit1 – 20 litre drum about half full of water (contents labelled as a detergent)1 – 200 litre drum (unmarked, for clean up waste container)1 – ‘Hazardous waste’ label1 – MSDS for the particular detergent1 – Marker pen2 – Sets of appropriate PPE (face shield, rubber boots, gloves, apron).Procedure to follow:1. Explain the purpose of the simulation and remind candidates of the assessment criteria.2. Outline the scenario to the candidates.3. Instruct the ‘clean up crew’ to put on the appropriate personal protection equipment.4. When ready, spill the ‘detergent’ by tipping the drum on its side and removing the smallscrew-on lid.5. Start with the first two steps of the procedure: ‘What to do…’ and ‘Initial action…’6. Use the checklist for ‘Correct procedure’.7. When the simulation has finished, restore the area and resources, ready for the nextsimulation.From Guide 1: Training Package Assessment Materials Kit, Page 64 © DETYA 2001
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Checklist – Hazardous Spill Response
Candidate name:
Assessor name:
Elements of competency:
Name of Workplace:
Date of assessment:
During the demonstration of skills, did the candidate:• determined source and stop the flow of the liquid?• contain the spill?• check safety precautions on the relevant Material Safety Data Sheet?• wear appropriate Personal Protection Equipment (PPE)?• cover the spill with absorbent and allow time to soak?• place contaminated absorbent in a drum or plastic bag?• mop area and tip liquid into the drum or bag withcontaminated absorbent?• dispose of waste via the established procedure?• complete an Environmental Incident Investigation Report?• work effectively in a team situation?• demonstrate appropriate communication skills?• carry out the required tasks in the correct sequence?
Yes No N/A
The candidate’s performance was:
Not Satisfactory
Satisfactory
Feedback to candidate:
Candidate’s signature:
Assessor’s signature:
From Guide 1: Training Package Assessment Materials Kit, Page 65, © DETYA 2001ii. Assessment Materials and Tools – Simulation
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Application ofunderpinningknowledge
Extension/probingquestion
Contingencyquestion
iii. Assessment Materials and Tools –Oral QuestioningSample completed recording sheet for oral questioning
ORAL/INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
Name of candidate: Jenny Ngo
Unit(s): CHCAC3A Orientation to aged care work
Element 2. Demonstrate commitment to quality care for aged people
Performance criteria: 2.3 Legal responsibilities and duty of care are complied with
Workplace or RTO: Pennyroyal Centre
Conditions: Questions following observation at workplace
Satisfactory ResponseYes No
Oral/interview questions
Q1. WHAT DOES DUTY OF CARE MEAN?Q2. WHO DO YOU HAVE A DUTY OF CARE TO?Q3. What does duty of care mean to you in this centre?Q4. What actions have you taken over the last week that indicatesthat you have shown duty of care?Q5. Give me an example of an action that could occur in this centrethat you think would not show that appropriate duty of care hasbeen taken.Q6. What would you do if you saw that action occurring at this centre?
The candidate’s underpinning knowledge was: Satisfactory Not SatisfactorySigned by the Assessor Date
Feedback to candidate:
Acceptable answers are:Q1: Taking steps to reduce the possibility of risk or harm to a person without taking awaythe person’s right to make an informed decision.Q2: Customers, self, co-workers, others around you at work, other service providers.Q3: etcQ4Q5Q6
From Guide 1: Training Package Assessment Materials Kit, Page 75, © DETYA 2001Questions onregulations andprocedures
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iv. Assessment Materials and Tools –Project Based AssessmentSample Workplace ProjectPROJECT INSTRUCTIONSThis project will allow you to demonstrate competency for the first two elements of theunit: CHCPR2A Organise experiences for children• Establish a stimulating and positive environment• Encourage children’s involvement in experiences.How to prepareIn consultation with your supervisor, assist in setting up the physical environment for agroup of children in age groups: 0-2, 3-5 OR 6-12. This should remain set up for oneweek.You will have to consider the placement of furniture and equipment, the accessibility oftoys and play materials, visual stimulation, lighting, ventilation and other relevant factors.Readings that can help you with this project are:• Introduction to Play and Leisure, Units 2 and 3• Play and Development, Units 4 and 5How to performYour environment, as well as your interactions with the children, must show that you canorganise experiences for children that are safe, stimulating and positive and thatencourage the children to be involved in experiences.This project enables you to demonstrate your understanding of the issues and proceduresas well as your practical skills on the job.Evidence gathering1. Self assessmentAt the end of the week, evaluate the environment you have set up by answering thefollowing questions:• Is the environment safe?• Is the environment non-threatening?• Is the environment stimulating?• Is the environment challenging?• s the range of experiences sufficient for the child to make choices?• Did your interactions with children support children’s play?• You should provide examples that illustrate your answers.2. ObservationYour work for this project will also be observed over the week by your supervisor.From Guide 1: Training Package Assessment Materials Kit, Page 90, © DETYA 2001
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v. Assessment Materials and Tools – PortfolioSample Portfolio instructions
Portfolio for: BSBCMN306A Produce business documents
Due date:
Description of the portfolio:
The portfolio should include samples of business documents you have produced or editedwithin the last 6 months. Supporting materials must also be included wherever possibleyou must include paper and electronic files for work samples.Assessment Criteria:Documents will be checked for:• appropriate style and layout• use of software features for consistency and efficient production such as font styles,text formatting, style sheets and tables• appropriate use of basic graphic elements including logos, rules and shadingPresentation of the portfolioEach work sample in your portfolio will need to be supported by a statement whichoutlines:• the purpose of the document and the organisational requirements you had to consider• how the document relates to the requirements of the unit of competency• how the design and layout of the document were determined• the reasons why specific equipment and software features were used• the resources you used in preparing the documents.Portfolio contents:• paper and electronic files that you have produced or edited• related planning notes and requirements you followed for the design of the documents• letters from supervisors or clients that verify your involvement with the production ofthe documents• work samples and/or statements of achievements from any relevant learning exercises,including computer based tutorials and courses.Progress and feedback:This portfolio should be ongoing, to include samples of work you do over the period ofthis assessment.The portfolio will be checked as you progress through this assessment. Feedback about thequality of your evidence will be given before the final due date.The final presentation will be on the agreed date.
From Guide 1: Training Package Assessment Materials Kit, Page 94, © DETYA 2001
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v. Assessment Materials and Tools – PortfolioSample Portfolio Evaluation Form
From Guide 1: Training Package Assessment Materials Kit, Page 100, © DETYA 2001
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vi. Assessment Materials and Tools –Self AssessmentSample Self-assessment Tool
CAN I?
EVIDENCE SUGGESTIONS
Produce business documents (such asreports, proposals, databases,newsletters, web pages) and describetheir purpose?
I can show examples of documents I’veproduced myself. These would beaccounting statements, presentation slidesand a website I created using HTML.
Explain why specific type and layoutfeatures are used in differentdocuments?
I use style guides, templates and myemployer usually gives me instructions forhow these documents should look.
Identify the hardware (such as acomputer, scanner and printer) andsoftware needed to produce a document?
I did a short course in scanning imagesfor print and screens. This explained thetechnical issues involved in the process.
List all the organisation’s requirementsfor creating, using and saving computerfiles?
I can show how I organise and accessfiles from the server. I can show a paperfiling system that I set up.
Use software confidently and efficientlyto achieve design and layout features?
I feel I am now confident with thesoftware after regularly producingdocuments at work for six months.
Check documents for errors and makethe corrections to type and layout?
My employer gives me these jobs to do.
Use self-help resources such as onlinehelp or manuals to help solve problemsor learn more about software features?
I use tutorials and manuals to teachmyself about the software
Identify and apply the health and safetyissues associated with the technologyand environment you work with?
I attended a course about OHS in theworkplace and it covered issues forworkstations and office equipment.
Candidate’s name:
Date:
SELF-ASSESSMENT GUIDE: Certificate III in Business Services
Unit: BSBCMN306A: Produce business documents
Instructions:• Read each of the questions in the left hand columns of the chart• Place a tick in the box if you believe that you can perform the tasks described• Complete the column on the right hand side by listing any evidence you have to showthat you perform these tasks.
From Guide 1: Training Package Assessment Materials Kit, Page 37, © DETYA 2001
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10. Checklists and guidelinesThis set of exemplar material contains the following checklists and guidelines:i. Checklist for validity, reliability, fairness and flexibility
ii.iii.iv.v.vi.vii.vii.viii.ix.
Self-audit formatGuidelines for workplace simulationsUse of third party evidenceWorkplace assessment checklistEffective questioning guidelinesGuidelines for developing knowledge based testsAssessment Planning GuidelinesGuidelines for assessing distance learnersChecklist for special needs of candidates.
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i. Checklists and guidelines – Checklist forvalidity, reliability, fairness and flexibilityUse this checklist to assist you to design assessment tools and strategies.Gauge your assessment against the following statements, and where you areunable to answer YES, re-work your approach.
VALIDITY
Yes/No
Comment
1. The assessment tasks are based on realisticworkplace activities and contexts.
Y/N
2. The evidence relates directly to the units ofcompetence, or learning outcomes, being assessed.
Y/N
3. The instrument will assess the candidate’s abilityto meet the level of performance required bythe unit(s) of competency.
Y/N
4. The assessment tasks have been designed to allowholistic and integrated assessment of knowledge,skills and attitudes.
Y/N
5. More than one task and source of evidence will beused as the basis for judgement, with evidencedrawn from a variety of performances over timewhere practical.
Y/N
6. Different sources of evidence of knowledge andskills that underpin the unit of competency will beconsidered in the assessment.
Y/N
7. The purpose, boundaries and limitations of theinterpretations of evidence have been clearlyidentified.
Y/N
8. The methods and instruments selected areappropriate for the assessment system specified bythe industry (where applicable).
Y/N
9. Where practical, the methods and processes forassessment have been validated by another personwith expertise in the competencies being assessed.
Y/N
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i. Checklists and guidelines – Checklist forvalidity, reliability, fairness and flexibility
RELIABILITY
Yes/No
Comment
1. Critical elements have been identified andsampling will be used to ensure that the mostimportant aspects are assessed.
Y/N
2. Assessment exemplars and checklists have beenprepared for use by assessors.
Y/N
3. Guides for observing and recording evidence arebased on units of competency.
Y/N
4. Clear guidelines are available to ensure thatassessors make consistent decisions over time andwith different candidates.
Y/N
5. Where multiple assessors are involved inconducting parallel assessment events, thestrategies used have been agreed.
Y/N
6. Consistent instructions to candidates andprocedures for undertaking assessment areavailable to all assessors.
Y/N
7. Where work samples are to be used as evidence,candidates will receive specific guidelines onrequirements, including information about ensuringauthenticity and currency of the evidence.
Y/N
8. Where a unit or units of competency are to beassessed in different situations, the situations aregenerally comparable.
Y/N
FLEXIBILITY
Yes/No
Comment
1. The assessment approach can be adapted to meetthe needs of all candidates and workplaces.
Y/N
2. Where practical and appropriate, assessment willbe negotiated and agreed between the assessorand the candidate.
Y/N
3. Candidates will be able to have their previousexperience or expertise recognised.
Y/N
4. The assessment strategy adequately covers boththe on- and off-the-job components of thetraining.
Y/N
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i. Checklists and guidelines – Checklist forvalidity, reliability, fairness and flexibility
FAIRNESS
Yes/No
Comment
1. Candidates will be given clear and timelyinformation on assessment.
Y/N
2. Information for candidates will cover assessmentmethods, procedures, the criteria against whichthey will be assessed, when and how they willreceive feedback and the mechanism for appeal.
Y/N
3. Candidates will be included in discussions on thechoice of assessment methods and timing.
Y/N
4. Candidates will be made aware of theirresponsibilities with regard to assessment.
Y/N
5. The assessment approach chosen caters for thelanguage, literacy and numeracy needs of allcandidates.
Y/N
6. The special geographic, financial or social needsof candidates have been considered in thedevelopment and conduct of the assessment.
Y/N
7. Allowable adjustment can be made to theassessment strategy to ensure equity for allcandidates, while maintaining the integrity ofthe assessment outcomes.
Y/N
8. Opportunities for feedback and review of allaspects of assessment will be provided tocandidates.
/N
9. There are clearly documented mechanisms forappeal against assessment processes anddecisions and these will be provided tocandidates prior to assessment.
Y/N
From Guide 10: Quality Assurance Guide for Assessment, Pages 72–74 © DETYA 2001
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ii. Checklists and guidelines – Self Audit FormatInternal audit checklistRTO name: Insert the name of the RTO.Partner organisation(s):(if relevant) Insert the name of the partner organisation(s).Qualification(s): Insert the scope of the sample audited,ie title of qualifications.Units of competency: Insert the scope of the sample audited,ie title of units of competency reviewed.People interviewed: Insert the names of people interviewed in the process.This may be contact staff, assessors and/or candidates.Sites visited: Insert the names of the sites visited.Date(s) of audit: Insert the dates on which the audit was undertaken.Audit summary:Use this space to summarise the review, eg areas for improvement, the possibleaction to be taken (recommendations), the person responsible for action and thepossible timeline.Reviewer(s): Date:From Guide 10: Quality Assurance Guide for Assessment, Page 81, © DETYA 2001
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ii. Checklists and guidelines – Self Audit Format
EVIDENCE TO BE PROVIDED
Yes/No
Action
Partnership arrangement
Are arrangements entered on register?
Are arrangements documented?Do they include:• clear roles and responsibilities of the partnerorganisations?• quality assurance arrangements?
Policy related material
Evidence of the following policy document(s) andprocedures to ensure quality of assessment services,including:• Code of Practice or policy for assessment(including review mechanisms)• policy for Recognition processes (RPL/RCC)• grievance/appeals policy• business plan• risk management strategy• compliance with State & Territory laws andCommonwealth State legislation• protection of student fees and/or refund policy.
Procedure/Guideline information
Evidence of information to assessors (eg process,roles and responsibilities)
Evidence of information to candidates (eg process,rights and responsibilities) is:• clear and unambiguous• accurate• provided prior to enrolment/assessment.
Assessment
Evidence of:• relevant copies of Training Package/accredited course• assessment plans (evidence of industry/enterpriseconsultation, adherence to principles of validity,reliability, fairness and flexibility)• copies of assessment tools (evidence of industry/enterprise consultation)• samples of evidence provided (where feasible)• details of assessment outcomes recorded.
Validation
Evidence of policy and procedure for validation• regular validation activities (eg minutes, summaryof outcomes, action taken)• evaluation of feedback from candidates• industry/enterprise participation (if required).
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Evidence to be provided
Yes/No
Action
Assessor qualifications
Profiles of assessors that includes:• assessment qualifications• industry/technical qualifications• relevant current industry experience• relevant unit(s) of competency they are assessing• records of professional development.
Access and equity
Evidence of:• access and equity issues being addressed inassessment documentation/strategies• support available in the assessment process.
Record keeping
A secure system that includes:• enrolment details• assessment outcomes• information on appeals/grievances• qualifications /Statements of Attainment issued.
Adequate procedure for the transfer of data torelevant authorities to ensure integrity of theinformation. (eg partnerships arrangements,State/Territory requirements).
Is there an appropriate procedure for archiving data?
Marketing information
Is all marketing material accurate and ethical?
Statements of Attainment/Qualifications
Are Statements of Attainment/qualifications:• issued regularly?• accurate?
Is there evidence of mutual recognition?
Resources
Are there appropriate assessment:• resources?• equipment?• facilities?
Do these meet relevant occupational health andsafety and legislative requirements?
Documentation of quality assurance strategies
Is there a process and evidence of action of:• monitoring assessment outcomes?• results of surveys/evaluations?• annual audit or self-assessment of assessmentsystem?
From Guide 10: Quality Assurance Guide for Assessment, Pages 82–83 © DETYA 2001
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iii. Checklists and guidelines –Guidelines for Workplace SimulationBefore making a decision to use simulation, consider:• Training Package requirements and industry views on the use of simulation• the benefits and limitations of using a simulation• learner characteristics and needs• available workplace opportunities• the cost of establishing and using simulated environments• how the simulated assessment can be combined with other forms of evidence gatheringsuch as logbooks, portfolios or work placements.Preparing the assessment event• If you are assessing within a VET training institution, consider forming a partnership withlocal enterprises who may provide access to a workplace or equipment, authenticworkplace documents or advice on how to create a realistic simulated environment.• Review the whole qualification or units of competence to be assessed to build inopportunities for assessing whole work tasks or clusters of competencies. Whereappropriate include opportunities to assess relevant generic competencies such asteamwork, communication, occupational health and safety and leadership.• Include contingencies as part of the assessment design. For example, candidates might berequired to deal with the pressures of telephones, time constraints and interruptions toworkflow.• Focus the assessment activity on processes as much as product.• Apply operational procedures and occupational health and safety requirements as theywould be in a real work setting.• Validate methods, context and concepts with industry/workplace representatives to ensurethe accuracy of the assessment approach.• Prepare an observation checklist that clearly outlines the critical performance criteria.Preparing the physical location• Consult with workplace/industry experts on what should be included.• Check real workplaces to get ideas about current practice and ways of setting up workspaces.• Where practical, alter the training environment so that it reflects a real workplace.• Use equipment and other facilities that are as close to those used by industry as possible.
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Preparing the candidate(s)• Give candidates a pre-assessment briefing outlining the assessment method, process andtools.• Discuss the criteria against which their performance is to be assessed.• Give candidates adequate information about the role they are to undertake and thesignificance of the event.Conducting the assessment• Where practical, involve industry experts in the assessment process and the decisionmaking.• Where appropriate, videotape the performance of the candidate.• Use a checklist of critical performance criteria to focus on the observation of candidateperformance.• Use self-assessment, peer assessment and debriefing activities to add to the evidencegathered and help candidates develop reflective skills.From Guide 10: Quality Assurance Guide for Assessment, Pages 88–89 © DETYA 2001
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iv. Checklists and guidelines –Use of Third Party EvidenceGuidelines for use of third party evidenceThird party evidence is evidence gathered from workplace supervisors, peers and others tosupport the making of a judgement. An assessor cannot always observe a candidate for along period of time and some competency standards are difficult to observe. Therefore thirdparty evidence can be an essential piece of evidence in the assessment process.ApplicationAssessors and RTOs should put in place guidelines for the systematic collection of qualitythird party evidence. These may be in the form of information, advice and checklists for therelevant third parties. This should assist organisations to comply with the AQTF Standardsfor RTOs, especially Standards 8 and 9.BenefitsIt is important to support the collection of quality third party evidence as it offers assessorsa means of gathering authentic and valid evidence from often difficult contexts in acost-effective way. Third party reports can be used effectively in the evidence gatheringprocess when:• the evidence is provided by someone who is in a position to make a valid comment onthe candidate’s performance, for example, a line manager or a leading hand• the evidence is presented in written/official form, includes the name and contact detailsof the third party and can be easily verified• it is difficult to gather direct evidence, for example, if a candidate is located in a remotearea or is in a confidential situation• there is a need to confirm the authenticity and currency of evidence provided by acandidate, for example, to confirm that product evidence is the candidate’s own work.ConsiderationsThere are several things to consider when preparing guidelines for gathering third partyevidence.• A decision needs to be made about the appropriate balance between third party evidenceand evidence drawn from other sources.• The RTO needs to resource the initial development of the guidelines.• Guidelines require a validation process prior to dissemination, and this may involveindustry experts.• RTOs and individual assessors must implement version control and archive procedures.From Guide 10: Quality Assurance Guide for Assessment, Page 32 © DETYA 2001
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iv. Checklists and guidelines –Use of Third Party EvidenceThird Party Evidence FormConfidentialName of candidate:RTO:Unit(s) of competency:As part of the assessment for the units of competency, we are seeking evidence to support ajudgement about the candidate’s competence. As part of the evidence of competence we areseeking reports from the supervisor and other people who work closely with the candidate.Name of supervisor:Workplace:Address:Phone:Have you read the units of competency that you are commenting on? Yes NoHas the assessor explained the purpose of the candidate’s assessment? Yes NoAre you aware that the candidate will see a copy of this form? Yes NoAre you willing to be contacted should further verification of thisstatement be required? Yes NoWhat is your relationship to the candidate?How long have you worked with the person being assessed?How closely do you work with the candidate in the area being assessed?What is your technical experience and/or qualification(s) in the area being assessed?(Include any assessment or training qualifications.)
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Does the candidate:perform job tasks to an acceptable level? Yes Nomanage job tasks effectively? Yes Noimplement safe working practices? Yes Nosolve problems on the job? Yes Nowork well with others? Yes Nofind it easy to move to new tasks? Yes Nocope with unusual or non-routine situations? Yes NoOverall, do you believe the candidate performs to the standardrequired by the units of competency on a consistent basis?Identify any further training needs for the candidate:Any other comments:Supervisor signature: Date:From Guide 3: Recognition Resource, Page 108 © DETYA 2001
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v. Checklists and guidelines –Workplace Assessment Checklist
Workplace Assessment Checklist
Name of enterprise:
Address:
Phone: Email:
Fax: Mobile:
Workplace supervisor:
Trainee:
Qualifications:
Things to discuss with supervisor at initial meeting (Tick when completed):Contract of training – Training Package and training programCommunication arrangements between workplace, NAC and RTORTO assessor roleContact details for RTO assessorWorkplace supervisor role – evidence collection, training supervisionAssessor qualificationsOn- the-job assessment arrangementsOff- the-job assessment arrangementsRTO assessment quality assurance arrangementsUse of technical experts in on-the-job assessmentsOpportunities for collection of workplace evidenceAssessment recording and reporting arrangementsReassessment and appeals processProtocols for RTO staff to follow when visiting/contacting workplaceAny special requirements of workplace.
From Guide 1: Training Package Assessment Materials Kit, Page 39 © DETYA 2001
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vi. Checklists and guidelines –Effective Questioning GuidelinesEffective questioning guidelinesThe assessor should:• keep questions short and focused on one key concept• ensure that questions are formal and structured• test the questions to check that they are not ambiguous• use ‘open-ended questions such as ‘what if…?’ and ‘why…?’ questions, rather than closedquestions• keep questions clear and straight forward and ask one at a time• link the questions to work experience• use words that the candidate will understand• look at the candidate when asking questions• ensure that the candidate understands the questions• ask the candidate to clarify their answer if the assessor does not understand theresponse• confirm the candidate’s response by saying the answer back in his/her own words• document responses on a checklist or recording sheet• time questions so that candidates are not interrupted whilst carrying out a task thatrequires full concentration.• encourage a conversational approach with the candidate when appropriate, to put him orher at ease and also to make the questioning flow with the task• use questions or statements as prompts for keeping focused on the purpose of thequestions and the kind of evidence being collected• keep questions flexible and adjust language to a suitable level• listen carefully to the answers for opportunities to find unexpected evidence• follow up responses with further questions, if useful, to draw out more evidence or tomake links between knowledge areas• make up a list of acceptable responses to ensure reliability of assessmentsAssessors should avoid:• asking two questions in one for example: What are the two methods of whippingcream and what ingredients do you need for each? Instead ask:• What are the two methods for whipping cream?• What ingredients do you need for the first method?
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• asking leading questions in which the expected answer is implied, for example:• You would check for damage before packing the items, wouldn’t you?Instead ask:• What precautions would you take before packing cartons?• asking long-winded, complicated questions, for example:• You are driving your vehicle. You are approaching a busy intersection. You are in topgear and your right indicator is flashing. There are three vehicles approaching fromthe right. It is late in the evening and it is raining. You turn into the right lane andapply the brakes, but get no response. What do you have to consider when making adecision as to what to do?Instead give the candidate:• a scenario to read rather than asking a question• break the scenario into a series of shorter questions.• asking double negative questions, for example: It wouldn’t be incorrect to followthat procedure, would it? Instead ask:• What is the correct procedure to follow in this situation?• asking trick questions for example: When is it safe to tip hazardous waste downstorm water drains? Instead ask:• How would you dispose of hazardous waste?• asking the candidate to outline knowledge of a topic without giving them a guide forhow much information is needed, for example: Outline the health and safety issuesthat you may need to consider for adults when designing an environment forchildren. Instead ask:• List three key health and safety issues you would need to consider whendesigning an environment for children.• inadvertently help the candidate to give a correct answer by prompting, giving thecandidate the answers, or by giving cues through the use of body language such as asmile, a nod or a wink• Assessor: What type of thickening agent would you use? ‘ Candidate …er• Assessor: You’d use flour wouldn’t you? Candidate: …er …yes!Recording responsesIt is important for the assessor to have a record of the questions asked and an indication ofthe suitability of the responses given by the candidate. If the candidate’s response isinsufficient the assessor should record why on the recording sheet or checklist. This providesinformation that can be used later, if necessary, to explain to the candidate where he or sheneeds to develop their skills and/or underpinning knowledge to achieve the requiredcompetence.From Guide 1: Training Package Assessment Materials Kit, Pages 71–73 © DETYA 2001
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vii. Checklists and guidelines – Guidelines fordeveloping Knowledge Based TestsBefore writing or selecting questionsHave you identified the purpose of the test?Have you identified the underpinning knowledge in the relevant unit(s) of competency?Have you used a specification table to ensure that all relevant underpinning knowledge iscovered?Have you addressed all of the underpinning knowledge contained within the unit(s) of competency?Have you decided on the most appropriate types of questions for the purpose of the test?Does the level of difficulty of the test match the AQF level?Developing questionsAre the questions clearly worded, concise and grammatically correct?Have you used language and terminology appropriate for the characteristics of the candidate?Have you checked that the questions are not beyond the scope of the unit(s) or competencyor the AQF level?Have you used a variety of question formats?Have you included enough questions to cover the underpinning knowledge adequately?Have you estimated the marking time for the test?Are your questions biased? Eg do these questions include language/terminology that will beunfamiliar or insulting to certain groups?Have you checked for possible inclusion of stereotypes in your questions?Have you assessed the level of difficulty of the test questions?Have you allocated sufficient time to do the test?Have you piloted these question types?Have you planned the resources necessary to administer the test?If your test is a computer-based test, will all the candidates have access to computers whenthe test is being administered?Test structureHave you estimated the duration of the test accurately for the group of candidates?If you are testing underpinning knowledge of a number of competency units, have youweighted them appropriately (ie ensured that a greater number of questions is allocated tounits with a higher nominal duration hours)?Are there clear instructions for the candidate?Test layoutHave you used an appropriate font for the questions, which is easy to read?Is there appropriate space between questions to ensure that they are easy to read?Have you checked that the questions do not run over to the next page?Have you included sufficient space for written answers?Have you considered a separate answer booklet?Marking and scoringHave you compiled a marking guide indicating exactly where and how marks will be allocated?From Designing Tests, © WA Department of Training/VETASSESS, 2000
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viii. Checklists and guidelines –Assessment Planning GuidelinesAssessment Planning Checklist – to assist in the planning ofassessment activitiesUnit of competency/elements to be assessed:Date:
1. Collect and analyse informationCollect industry/training documentation, including:Training Package and/or competency standardsassessment guidelines, resourcescurriculumother relevant documentsDefine industry/training requirements, including:type of enterprisepartnership preferencescost structure for assessment
Comment:
2. Identify the purpose and what will be assessedIdentify why candidates will present for assessment:recognitionaward of qualificationlicensingenterprise performance appraisalpromotion/career developmentotherDefine what to assess, by:analysing unit(s) of competency, and module/learningoutcomes requirementsdetermining how best to cluster competencies to be assessedmapping competencies against curriculum where appropriatecollecting logbooks and other documents supplied by industry
Comment:
3. Determine where assessment will take placeDetermine where assessment will be carried out:assessment entirely off-the-jobassessment of underpinning knowledge/skills off-the-job,targeted assessment in the workplaceassessment integrated on- and off-the-jobassessment entirely in the workplaceassessment off-site:
Comment:
4. Identify how to assessIdentify techniques for collecting evidence including:observation of performancequestioning – oral or written(integrated) project work
Comment:
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group work/taskwritten testscritical incident scenariossamples of work, log of experience, portfolio, journal, workbookcertificates, documents, study recordssurveys, reports from othersrole playsimulationConsider other techniques, including:self-assessmentpeer assessment
5. Determine how evidence will be collected andrecorded including:Determine evidence gathering tools:Training Record Book or logbookperformance checklist with commentsknowledge checklistchecklist for integrated assessmentevaluation/marking guide – for reports/projectslist of questions – written and/or oralself and peer assessment reportsevaluation guide and annotated models for work samplesand/or performanceother proformas/templatesSet up administrative procedures for:ecognition process (recognition of prior learning/currentcompetencies)provision of feedbackrecording and reporting of resultsprocess for review and continuous improvementDetermine who will be responsible for record keeping:candidatesupervisor/mentor/trainerassessorother personDefine the type and level of integration:integration of aspects of work performanceholistic tasks, projectsintegration of on- and off-the-job performanceWhere partnership arrangements exist, set up agreementsthat define who will make assessment judgments:RTO aloneRTO in partnership with enterpriseRTO in partnership with industry
Comment:
From Guide 10: Quality Assurance Guide for Assessment, Pages 68–69 © DETYA 2001
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ix. Checklists and guidelines –Guidelines for assessing Distance LearnersMany assessors believe that the possible methods of assessment for distance learners arevery limited. However, this is not necessarily the case. Distance learners, whether learningthrough on-line training or some other form of learning, can undertake many of theassessment activities undertaken by other candidates. However, assessors will need todevelop a number of strategies to make this work, including using third party evidence,authenticating evidence more carefully, and enlisting the support of workplace assessorswhere appropriate.The following table notes evidence gathering techniques suitable for distance learners andthe issues to consider when assessing distance learners.
EVIDENCE GATHERINGTECHNIQUE
ISSUES TO CONSIDER FOR DISTANCE LEARNERS
Observations
Involve third party to undertake observation usingobservation toolSupplement with oral questioning (by phone) or other formsof evidenceAssessor can travel to candidate for observation/verificationand feedback on a range of evidence collection
Simulations
Provide written case study for short answer responses andoral questioningUse video camera technology if available for role plays orsimulations
Questioning
Use computer technology, written answers or phoneAuthenticate written answers through use of third partyand/or phone discussions
Review of products
Work samples or products can be posted to assessorDraft versions can be sent in advance to assist withauthentication
Portfolio
Portfolio evidence can be posted or emailed to assessorProposed content and layout can be sent in advance to assistwith authentication
Third party feedback
Can be used through phone, post or email communicationswith third party
Structured activities
Presentations can be made to workplace or community andthen video sent to assessorCandidates can negotiate with workplace supervisor toundertake specified project team activities
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Knowledge based testsSelf-assessment
Can be undertaken on-line with additional evidence collectedto establish authenticityThird party can be involved to establish authenticity andensure candidate completes test in appropriate time andenvironmentShort answer ‘open book’ tests can be undertaken,supplemented by other forms of evidence to showconsistency of competency over time.Increased use of formative assessments, such as on-lineself-assessments, can be used to better establish thecandidates readiness for assessment and to enhance theassessor’s ability to establish authenticity of evidencecollected for the assessments.
Developed by Nexus Strategic Solutions, © WA Department of Training 2001
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x. Checklists and guidelines –Checklist for Special Needs of CandidatesAssessment procedures, tools and materials can be adapted to ensure that the needs andsituation of specific candidates are met. These adaptations are allowable provided they donot compromise any of the rules of evidence or other requirements for high qualityassessments.In order to ensure that a candidate’s special needs are addressed, the following questionscould be asked. If any of the answers are yes, further action to customise the assessmentneeds to be taken.Does the candidate live in a remote location and will this create any barriers in relationto the assessment procedure or evidence gathering techniques? For example:• Some communities don’t have access to certain workplace equipment• Candidates in custodial situations may require assessments to be reworked toenable them to demonstrate their competencies in their particular situation• If a candidate has to travel to a metropolitan area for an assessment, theadditional costs and stress involved in this needs to be considered.Does the candidate have any language, literacy or numeracy needs?Does the assessment procedure require any language, literacy or numeracy beyondthose outlined in the competencies being assessed?Does the assessment involve anything that may be contrary to, or uncomfortablebecause of, a candidate’s cultural background? For example:• Indigenous people may feel more comfortable with group learning than individuallearning, and may not feel comfortable with assessment procedures involvingcompetitive behaviour• Candidates from some cultural backgrounds may not understand assessmentsbased on hypothetical situations or role plays• Some candidates may benefit from the presence of a support person while beingassessed (eg someone from their family or their community)• Candidates from some backgrounds may have sensitivities in relation to ‘men’s’and ‘women’s’ business and require certain assessments to occur in gendersegmented environments (eg oral questioning about sexual health may need to bedone by an assessor of the same gender as the candidate)• Candidates from some cultural backgrounds may not consider it appropriate tomake ‘an educated guess’ and therefore fail to complete certain types ofknowledge based tests like multiple choices or true/false tests• Candidates from some cultural backgrounds may view it as appropriate to underassess their level of skills and therefore perform badly in certain types ofassessments such as self-assessments or oral questioning• Candidate’s religious beliefs may not allow them to undertake certain activities.
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Does the assessment procedure involve assessing the candidate in front of others in asituation that may be stressful (eg a women in a non-traditional field)?Does the candidate have a disability which may require some adjustments?For example:• A candidate with a learning disability may need additional time for assessmentactivities such as knowledge based tests• A candidate with a sensory impairment may need additional lighting or translationor special technology to communicate or demonstrate certain knowledge and skills• A candidate with a physical disability or mobility limitations may require anassistant or adjusted equipment in certain environments• A candidate with a psychiatric disability or mental health problem may requireadditional explanation or discussion in advance of an assessment in order todefuse any additional stress assessment may cause• A candidate with an intellectual disability may be uncomfortable being assessed inan unfamiliar environment.Developed by Nexus Strategic Solutions, © WA Department of Training 2001
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11. Graded Performance OverviewA Joint Initiative between the Western Australian Department of Trainingand the WA TAFE SectorGraded performance, sometimes known as “graded assessment”, is the process of awardinglearners a grade based on a higher level of performance once competency has beenachieved. Learners are assessed against an additional set of criteria to determine how wellthey perform against particular assessment tasks.The West Australian initiated Graded Performance model has been developed in response torequests from learners, trainers/assessors, employers and industry for a grading system thatrecognises excellence in learner performance. Learners, Registered Training Organisations andHigher Education facilities have been seeking further information on learner performance toaid in learner pathways to further study.The benefits of a Graded Performance System include:• Students are encouraged to strive for excellence in their studies• Lecturers and employers can reward higher levels of performance amongst their learners• It will ensure greater articulation in to higher education, and• The adoption of a single reporting system across the VET system.The five Grading Criteria used in the Graded Performance model are:• Demonstrated breadth of underpinning knowledge• Communication, people networking, language and interpersonal skills• Techniques and processes• Work organisation, and• Level of independence and performance of work tasks.Graded Performance builds on the quality assessment processes already developed byRegistered Training Organisations (and detailed in the standards contained in the AustralianQuality Training Framework) and involves the following aspects of good practice inassessment:1. Units of competency are grouped together (or clustered) to reflect real work tasks2. Learners are provided with an assessment plan that details What unit or cluster of units are being assessed How will the units be assessed Timing of the assessment Where the assessment will occur Resource requirements Additional grading criteria against which the learner will be judged
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3. At least two assessment tools are used to assess the unit (or cluster of units). Thesetools are chosen from a range of methods including: Work related performance Work related project Work related product or service Work related practical task Work related portfolio Knowledge based test4. The two assessment tools are used to make the following judgements: Is the learner competent or not yet competent If the learner is not yet competent, grading does not apply, but the RTO rules forreassessment do apply If the learner is competent, no additional assessment evidence is required to applythe grading and make a judgement about the learners level of performance The assessment evidence information is used to allocate a level of performanceagainst each of the grading criteria Depending on results, this is reported as either Competent, Performance with Meritor Performance with Distinction.In the interests of transparent, valid, reliable and consistent assessment it is important thatall trainers assessing in the qualifications involved in the model judge the performance oflearners against a common set of criteria. The criteria developed for the Western Australianmodel is essentially based on the Key Competencies (as they appear in the TrainingPackages, with some slight variation), the Dimensions of Competency, and therequirements of the Unit of Competency.For further information contact the Quality Assurance and Recognition branch of theDepartment of Training on 08 9235 6138 or accrec@royalst.training.wa.gov.au
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IntroductionThis Section provides a guide to useful resources for trainers, assessors and other partiesinvolved in competency based assessments.The resources are noted under three different headings:Websites providing ongoing information relevant to competency based assessmentResources on particular aspects of competency based assessmentOrganisations providing information or assistance on competency based assessment.Websitesproviding ongoing information relevant to competency basedassessmentwww.training.wa.gov.au – the WA Department of Training website, which includes links toinformation updates, news, publications and links to other sites, including WestOne and theTraining Information Centre.www.tac.wa.gov.au – the website of the Training Accreditation Council, the Registering andCourse Accrediting body in WA.www.anta.gov.au – ANTA’s website, providing general information on vocational education andtraining issues and links to other relevant websites.www.anta.gov.au/aqtf – Website devoted to the Australian Quality Training Framework(previously Australian Recognition Framework).www.ntis.gov.au – Comprehensive national training information website, which includesinformation on Training Packages, Registered Training Providers and other key information.www.aqf.edu.au – the Australian Qualifications Framework website.www.detya.gov.au – the website of the Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs.www.nawtb.com.au – the website of the National Assessors and Workplace Trainers Body.Section 5: Resources Guide
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Resources on particular aspects ofcompetency based assessmentTraining Package Assessment Materials Project (© Department of Education Training andYouth Affairs – DETYA, 2001)A DETYA funded ANTA managed project resulting in ten guides for assessors and thosemanaging assessment processes within the VET sector. High quality, up to date and userfriendly documents including plenty of templates, examples and case studies, available in hardcopy and CD format.Guide 1: Training Package assessment materials kitGuide 2: Assessing competencies in higher qualificationsGuide 3: Recognition resourceGuide 4: Kit to support assessor trainingGuide 5: Candidate’s Kit: Guide to assessment in New ApprenticeshipsGuide 6: Assessment approaches for small workplacesGuide 7: Assessment using partnership arrangementsGuide 8: Strategies for ensuring consistency in assessmentGuide 9: Networking for assessorsGuide 10: Quality assurance guide for assessment.Available from: Australian Training ProductsDesigning Tests: Guidelines for Designing Knowledge Based Tests for Training Packages(© Department of Training, 2000)Useful and clear advice for writing knowledge based tests of all sorts, developed by the WADepartment of Training and VETASSESS.Available from: Quality Assurance and Recognition, Department of Training.Skills Recognition Framework for Vocational Education and Training in WesternAustralia (© Department of Training, 2000)Policy and guidance on skills recognition, including Recognition of Prior Learning, Recognitionof Current Competencies, Credit Transfer and Exemptions.Available from: Quality Assurance and Recognition, Department of Training.Building Diversity in Vocational Education and Training and Employment (© Departmentof Training, 1999)Policy and guidance on providing training relevant to a diverse range of clients.Available from: Department of Training.Showcasing RTOs: the ARF at work (© ANTA, 1999)Case study stories.Available from: Quality Assurance and Recognition, Department of Training.
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Process for Training Package Development (© ANTA, 1999)Policy and guidance for those developing Training Packages, including the assessmentinformation required to be included in Training Packages.Available from: Australian National Training Authority.Using Training Packages: From Training Package to Learning Program (© Departmentof Training, 2000)User-friendly explanation of the components of Training Packages and how to interpret themfor training delivery and assessment purposes.Available from: Quality Assurance and Recognition, Department of Training.Units BSZ401A, BSZ402A and BSZ403A from Training Package for WorkplaceAssessors and Trainers. (© ANTA)Competency Standards required by all VET assessors.Available from: National Assessors and Workplace Trainers Body.Organisations providing information orassistance on competency based assessmentWA Department of TrainingQuality Assurance and Recognition Branch (QAR)The QAR Branch is responsible for the provision of policy advice on major vocational educationand training issues as it relates to quality of the VET sector.Level 2, 151 Royal StreetEast Perth WA 6004
Internet:Telephone:Facsimile:Email:
www.training.wa.gov.au08 9235 612708 9235 6142accrec@royalst.training.wa.gov.au
Australian National Training AuthorityANTA is responsible for the development of, and advice on, national policy, goals and objectives,a national strategy and Annual National Priorities in the vocational education and trainingsector.
Level 11/10 Eagle Street
Level 5/321 Exhibition StreetGPO Box 5347BMelbourne Vic 3001
PO Box 3120
Brisbane Qld 4001
Internet:Telephone:Facsimile:
www.anta.gov.au07 32466 230007 3246 2490
03 9630 980003 9630 9888
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Australian Training ProductsAustralian Training Products is a specialist publisher and distributor, focussed on providingtraining materials to the vocational education and training sector.
Internet:Telephone:Facsimile:Email:
www.atpl.net.au03 9630 983603 9639 4684sales@atpl.net.au
Vocational Education and Training Assessment Services (VETASSESS)VETASSESS is a provider of assessment and educational consultancy services to the vocationaleducation and training sector.Level 4478 Albert StreetEast Melbourne VIC 3002
Internet:Telephone:Facsimile:Email:
www.bhtafe.edu.au/vetassess03 9655 480103 9654 3385vetasses@vetassess.com.au
National Industry Training Advisory BodiesA comprehensive list of all National and State Industry Training Advisory Bodies may be foundat the following Internet address: www.anta.gov.au/lnkItabs.aspWA Industry Training Councils (ITCs)/Industry Training Advisory Bodies (ITABs)(NOTE: at the time of printing all details listed below for WA ITCs/ITABs are correct.)Arts, Sport & Recreation Industry Training Council258 William Street (PO Box 108, NORTHBRIDGE 6865)NORTHBRIDGE WA 6003
Internet
www.waasritc.com.au
TelephoneFacsimileEmail
(08) 9227 8358(08) 9227 8350waasritc@wantree.com.au
Automotive Industry Training Advisory BoardC/- 224 Balcatta Road (PO Box 727, BALCATTA 6914)BALCATTA WA 6021
Internet
www.automotivetraining.org.au
TelephoneFacsimileEmail
(08) 9345 3466(08) 9345 3465rgoodlet@mta-wa.com.au
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Building and Construction Industry Training Council1111 Hay StreetWEST PERTH WA 6005
Internet
www.bcitcwa.com.au
Telephone
9481 1511
FacsimileEmail
9481 3303bcitcwa@bcitcwa.com.au
Community Services, Health and Education Industry Training Council1st Floor, 1152 Hay Street (PO Box 1806, WEST PERTH 6872)WEST PERTH WA 6005
Internet
www.csheitc.org.au
TelephoneFacsimileEmail
(08) 9481 4211(08) 9481 5226csheitc@highway1.com.au
Finance, Property and Business Services Industry Training CouncilSuite 1, 62 Ord StreetWEST PERTH WA 6005
TelephoneFacsimileEmail
(08) 9226 4717(08) 9226 4714info@fpbsitc.com.au
Food Industry Training CouncilPO Box 1289BOORAGOON WA 6954
Internet
www.wafitc.org.au
Telephone
(08) 9444 5422(0402) 030 688(08) 9418 5836terry.richards@gwf.com.au
FacsimileEmail
Hospitality and Tourism Industry Training Council4 Ventnor Avenue (PO Box 1794, WEST PERTH WA 6872)WEST PERTH WA 6005
Internet
www.wahtitc.com.au
TelephoneFacsimileEmail
(08) 9322 9922(08) 9322 9933hosptour@iinet.net.au
Light Manufacturing Industry Training CouncilSuite 4, 207 Balcatta Road (PO BOX 577, BALCATTA WA 6914)BALCATTA WA 6021
TelephoneFacsimileEmail
(08) 9240 1048(08) 9240 1035lmitc@iinet.net.au
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Metals, Manufacturing and Services Industry Training CouncilSuite 5, 1st Floor, 251-257 Hay Street (PO Box 6718, EAST PERTH WA 6892)EAST PERTH WA 6004
TelephoneFacsimileEmail
(08) 9221 1980(08) 9221 1990merswa@ozemail.com.au
Primary Industry Training Council100 Bougainvillea Avenue (PO Box 157, FORRESTFIELD WA 6058)FORRESTFIELD WA 6058
TelephoneFacsimileEmail
(08) 9359 4000(08) 9359 4007admin@waptic.org
Process Manufacturing Industry Training Council133 Salvado Road (PO Box 121, SUBIACO WA 6904)WEMBLEY WA 6014
Internet
www.iinet.net.au/~wapmitc
TelephoneFacsimileEmail
(08) 9387 9501(08) 9387 9507wapmitc@iinet.net.au
Transport and Storage Industry Training Council17 Lemnos Street (PO Box 7033)SHENTON PARK WA 6008
Internet
www.tsitc.asn.au/
TelephoneFacsimileEmail
(08) 9388 8781(08) 9388 8784itc@tsitc.asn.au
WA Information, Electrotechnology and Utilities Industry Training CouncilSuite 3, 207 Balcatta Road (PO BOX 597, BALCATTA WA 6914)BALCATTA WA 6021
Internet
www.waueeiiitc.iinet.net.au
Telephone
9240 2688
FacsimileEmail
9240 2930ieuitc@iinet.net.au
Wholesale, Retail and Personal Services Industry Training Council110-116 East ParadeEAST PERTH WA 6004
Telephone
9228 1400
FacsimileEmail
9228 1500norma@wrapswa.com.au
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Acronyms Used
AQF
Australian Qualifications Framework
AQTF Australian Quality Training Framework
CBA
Competency Based Assessment
ITAB
Industry Training Advisory Body
NTFQAR
National Training FrameworkQuality Assurance and Recognition (Branch of Department of Training)
RCAB Registering/Course Accrediting Bodies
RCCRPLRTOVET
Recognition of Current CompetenciesRecognition of Prior LearningRegistered Training OrganisationVocational Education and Training
Section 6: Acronyms andGlossary of Terms
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Competency Based Assessment
Glossary OF TERMSThis glossary is drawn from one compiled for use in the Training Package AssessmentMaterials Project. Where definitions have been sourced from particular documentation theyhave been noted. Other definitions in this glossary were developed for use in the TrainingPackage Assessment Materials Project (© DETYA 2001).AccreditationAccreditation means the process of formal recognition of a course by the State orTerritory course accrediting body in line with the AQTF Standards for State and TerritoryRegistering/Course Accrediting Bodies.From AQTF Standards for RTOsAccredited courseAccredited course means a structured sequence of vocational education and training thatleads to an Australian Qualifications Framework qualification or Statement of Attainment.From AQTF Standards for RTOsAppeal processA process whereby the person being assessed, or other interested party, such as anemployer, may dispute the outcome of an assessment and seek reassessment.From Training Package for Assessment and Workplace TrainingAssessmentAssessment means the process of collecting evidence and making judgements onwhether competency has been achieved to confirm that an individual can perform to thestandard expected in the workplace as expressed in the relevant endorsedindustry/enterprise competency standards or the learning outcomes of an accreditedcourse.From AQTF Standards for RTOsAssessment contextThe environment in which the assessment will be carried out. This will include physicaland operational factors, the assessment system within which assessment is carried out,opportunities for gathering evidence in a number of situations, the purpose of theassessment, who carries out the assessment and the period of time during which it takesplace.From Training Package for Assessment and Workplace TrainingAssessment guidelinesAssessment guidelines are an endorsed component of a Training Package whichunderpins assessment and which sets out the industry approach to valid, reliable, flexibleand fair assessment. Assessment guidelines include the assessment system overview,assessor requirements, designing assessment resources, conducting assessment andsources of information on assessment.From AQTF Standards for RTOs
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Assessment judgementAssessment judgement involves the assessor evaluating whether the evidence gathered iscurrent, valid, authentic and sufficient to make the assessment decision. The assessmentjudgement will involve the assessor in using professional judgement in evaluating theevidence available.Assessment materialsAssessment materials are any resources that assist in any part of the assessment process.They may include information for the candidate or assessor, assessment tools orresources for the quality assurance arrangements of the assessment system.Assessment methodAssessment method means the particular technique used to gather different types ofevidence. This may include methods or techniques such as questioning, observation, thirdparty reports, interviews, simulations and portfolios. Also see Evidence gatheringtechnique.Assessment planAn assessment plan is a document developed by an assessor that includes the elementsand units of competency to be assessed, when the assessment will occur, how theassessment will occur, the assessment methods to be used and the criteria for theassessment decision.From Training Package for Assessment and Workplace TrainingAssessment processThe assessment process is the agreed series of steps that the candidate undertakes withinthe enrolment, assessment, recording and reporting cycle. The process must best suit theneeds of all stakeholders and be both efficient and cost-effective. The agreed assessmentprocess is often expressed as a flow chart.Assessment strategyAssessment strategy means the approach to assessment and evidence gathering used bythe assessor or Registered Training Organisation. It encompasses the assessment process,methods and assessment tools.Assessment systemAn assessment system is a controlled and ordered process designed to ensure thatassessment decisions made in relation to many individuals, by many assessors, in manysituations are consistent, fair, valid and reliable.From Training Package for Assessment and Workplace TrainingAssessment toolAn assessment tool contains both the instrument and the instructions for gathering andinterpreting evidence:• instrument(s) – the specific questions or activity developed from the selectedassessment method(s) to be used for the assessment. (A profile of acceptableperformance and the decision making rules for the assessor may also be included.)• procedures – the information/instructions given to the candidate and/or the assessorregarding conditions under which the assessment should be conducted and recorded.Also see Evidence gathering tool.
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Audit – referred to as Monitoring in WAAudit means a systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining evidenceto determine whether the activities and related outcomes of a training organisationcomply with the AQTF Standards for Registered Training Organisations.From AQTF Standards for RTOsAuspicingSee Collaborative assessment arrangements and Partnerships.Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF)A comprehensive nationally consistent Framework for all post compulsory qualifications.Australian Quality Training Framework (AQTF)Australian Quality Training Framework (AQTF) is the nationally agreed recognitionarrangements for the vocational education and training sector.From AQTF Standards for RTOsCandidateA candidate is any person presenting for assessment. The candidate may be:• a learner undertaking training in an institutional setting• a learner/worker undertaking training in a workplace• a learner/worker wanting their skills recognised• or any combination of the above.CompetencyThe specification of knowledge and skill and the application of that knowledge and skillto the standards of performance required in the workplace.From Training Package for Assessment and Workplace TrainingCompetency standardCompetency standards define the competencies required for effective performance in theworkplace. Standards are expressed in outcome terms and have a standard formatcomprising unit title, unit descriptor, elements, performance criteria, range of variablesand evidence guide. Also see Unit(s) of competency.From Training Package for Assessment and Workplace TrainingClientIn the AQTF, the term ‘client’ means learner, enterprise or organisation, which uses orpurchases the services provided by the Registered Training Organisation.From AQTF Standards for RTOsClusteringThe process of grouping competencies into combinations which have meaning andpurpose related to work functions and needs in an industry or enterprise.Adapted from Training Package for Assessment and Workplace Training
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Collaborative assessment arrangementsFormal collaborative assessment arrangements are the written agreements that areundertaken between a Registered Training Organisation (RTO) and other organisations orRTOs. These arrangements enable the partners to share for mutual benefit their resources,effort, time, cost, responsibility and expertise. These arrangements are regulated by theAQTF Standards for Registered Training Organisations. See also Partnerships andAuspicing. Informal collaborative arrangements refer to assessors and candidatesworking together, in partnership, in the assessment process.CustomisationCustomisation is the addition of specific industry or enterprise information to endorsednational competency standards to reflect the work of a particular industry or workplaceor to improve the standards’ relevance to industry.Delivery and assessment strategiesDelivery and assessment strategies means delivery and assessment strategies for eachqualification, or part thereof, within the Registered Training Organisation’s scope ofregistration.From AQTF Standards for RTOsDimensions of competencyThe concept of competency includes all aspects of work performance and not onlynarrow task skills. The four dimensions of competency are:• task skills• task management skills• contingency management skills• job/role environment skills.From Training Package Developers’ HandbookElementAn element is the basic building block of the unit of competency. Elements describe thetasks that make up the broader function or job, described by the unit.From Training Package for Assessment and Workplace TrainingEvidence and ‘quality’ evidenceEvidence is information gathered which, when matched against the performance criteria,provides proof of competency. Evidence can take many forms and be gathered from anumber of sources. Assessors often categorise evidence in different ways, for example:• direct, indirect and supplementary sources of evidence• evidence collected by the candidate or evidence collected by the assessor• historical and recent evidence collected by the candidate and current evidencecollected by the assessor.Quality evidence is valid, authentic, sufficient and current evidence that enables theassessor to make the assessment judgement.Evidence gathering techniquesEvidence gathering technique means the particular technique or method used to gatherdifferent types of evidence. This may include methods or techniques such as questioning,observation, third party reports, interviews, simulations and portfolios. Also seeAssessment method.
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Evidence gathering toolAn evidence gathering tool contains both the instrument and the instructions forgathering and interpreting evidence in an assessment process:• instrument(s) – the specific questions or activity developed from the selectedassessment method(s) to be used for the assessment (a profile of acceptableperformance and the decision making rules for the assessor may also be included)• procedures – the information/instructions given to the candidate and/or the assessorregarding conditions under which the assessment should be conducted and recorded.Also see Assessment tool.Evidence guideThe evidence guide is part of a unit of competency. Its purpose is to guide assessment ofthe unit of competency in the workplace and/or a training environment. The evidenceguide specifies the context of assessment, the critical aspects of evidence and therequired or underpinning knowledge and skills. The evidence guide relates directly to theperformance criteria and range of variables defined in the unit of competency.From Training Package for Assessment and Workplace TrainingEvidence planAn evidence plan is a document developed by an assessor, often in collaboration with thecandidate and the supervisor or technical expert. It includes the units of competency tobe assessed, details of the type of evidence to be collected, information regarding who isto collect the evidence and the time period for doing so.Flexible learning and assessmentFlexible learning and assessment means an approach to vocational education and trainingwhich allows for the adoption of a range of learning strategies in a variety of learningenvironments to cater for differences in learning styles, learning interests and needs, andvariations in learning opportunities (including online).From AQTF Standards for RTOsHolistic/integrated assessmentAn approach to assessment that covers the clustering of multiple units/elements fromrelevant competency standards. This approach focuses on the assessment of a ‘whole ofjob’ role or function that draws on a number of units of competency. This assessmentapproach also integrates the assessment of the application of knowledge, technical skills,problem solving and demonstration of attitudes and ethics.Adapted from Training Package for Assessment and Workplace TrainingIndustry Training Advisory Bodies (ITABs)National bodies comprising representation from the industry parties responsible for thedevelopment, review and implementation of competency standards in given industries.From Training Package for Assessment and Workplace TrainingKey competencyEmployment related general competencies that are essential for effective participation inthe workplace.From Training Package for Assessment and Workplace TrainingModeration – see Validation
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Monitoring – see AuditMutual recognitionMutual recognition applies nationally and means:1. The acceptance and application of the decisions of a registering body that hasregistered a training organisation, or a course accrediting body that has accredited acourse, by another registering body or course accrediting body, without there beingany further requirement for a process beyond the initial process, including:a. the recognition and application by the registering body of each State or Territoryof the decisions of the registering body of other States and Territories in relationto the registration of, imposition of sanctions on, including the cancellation ofregistration of training organisations; andb. the recognition and application by the course accrediting body of each State orTerritory of the decisions of the course accrediting body of other States andTerritories in relation to the accreditation of courses where no relevant TrainingPackage exists;2. The recognition by State and Territory registering bodies of the decisions of theNational Training Quality Council in endorsing Training Packages.3. The recognition and acceptance by a Registered Training Organisation of AustralianQualifications Framework qualifications and Statements of Attainment issued by otherRegistered Training Organisations, enabling individuals to receive national recognitionof their achievements.From AQTF Standards for RTOsNationally recognised trainingNationally recognised training means training and assessment, delivered by a RegisteredTraining Organisation, which meets the requirements specified in nationalindustry/enterprise Training Packages or accredited courses where no relevant TrainingPackage exists.From AQTF Standards for RTOsNational Training FrameworkNational Training Framework means the system of vocational education and trainingthat:• applies nationally• is endorsed by the ANTA Ministerial Council• is made up of the Australian Quality Training Framework and endorsed TrainingPackages.From AQTF Standards for RTOsNational Training Information Service (NTIS)National Training Information Service (NTIS) means the National Register for recordinginformation about Registered Training Organisations (RTOs), Training Packages andaccredited courses. Information held on the NTIS is searchable and publicly accessible viathe Internet. The NTIS contains comprehensive information on endorsed TrainingPackages which have been approved by Ministers and includes full details of competencystandards; a listing of National Training Quality Council noted support materials withcontact source; details of Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) accreditedcourses/qualifications; and contact details and scope of registration of all RTOs.From AQTF Standards for RTOs
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New Apprenticeships – referred to as Apprenticeships and Traineeships in WANew Apprenticeships means structured training arrangements, usually involving on- andoff-the-job training, for a person employed under an apprenticeship/traineeship trainingcontract.From AQTF Standards for RTOsPartnershipsFormal partnership assessment arrangements are the written agreements that areundertaken between a Registered Training Organisation (RTO) and other organisations orRTOs. These arrangements enable the partners to share for mutual benefit their resources,effort, time, cost, responsibility and expertise. These arrangements are regulated by theAQTF Standards for Registered Training Organisations. See also Collaborativeassessment arrangements and Auspicing. Informal partnership arrangements refer toassessors and candidates working together in the assessment process.Performance criteriaEvaluative statements which specify what is to be assessed and the required level ofperformance. The performance criteria specify the activities, skills, knowledge andunderstanding that provide evidence of competent performance for each element.From Training Package for Assessment and Workplace TrainingQualificationQualification means, in the vocational education and training sector, the formalcertification, issued by a Registered Training Organisation under the AustralianQualifications Framework (AQF), that a person has achieved all the requirements for aqualification as specified in an endorsed national Training Package or in an accreditedcourse.From AQTF Standards for RTOsRange of VariablesPart of a competency standard, which sets out a range of contexts in which performancecan take place. The range helps the assessor to identify the specific industry or enterpriseapplication of the unit of competency.From Training Package for Assessment and Workplace TrainingReasonable adjustmentThe nature and range of adjustment to an assessment tool or assessment method whichwill ensure valid and reliable assessment decisions but also meet the characteristics ofthe person(s) being assessed.Adapted from Training Package for Assessment and Workplace TrainingReassessmentAn assessment activity initiated as a result of an appeal against the outcome of aprevious assessment.From Training Package for Assessment and Workplace Training
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Recognition processRecognition process is a term that covers Recognition of Prior Learning, Recognition ofCurrent Competency and Skills Recognition. All terms refer to recognition ofcompetencies currently held, regardless of how, when or where the learning occurred.Under the Australian Quality Training Framework, competencies may be attained in anumber of ways. This includes through any combination of formal or informal trainingand education, work experience or general life experience. In order to grant recognitionof prior learning/current competency the assessor must be confident that the candidateis currently competent against the endorsed industry or enterprise competency standardsor outcomes specified in Australian Qualification Framework (AQF) accredited courses.The evidence may take a variety of forms and could include certification, references frompast employers, testimonials from clients and work samples. The assessor must ensurethat the evidence is authentic, valid, reliable, current and sufficient.From AQTF Standards for RTOsRecognition of Current CompetencySee Recognition process.Recognition of Prior LearningSee Recognition process.Records of assessmentThe information of assessment outcomes that is retained by the organisation responsiblefor issuing the nationally recognised Statement of Attainment or qualification.From Training Package for Assessment and Workplace TrainingRegistered Training Organisation (RTO)Registered Training Organisation (RTO) means a training organisation registered inaccordance with the Australian Quality Training Framework, within a defined scope ofregistration.From AQTF Standards for RTOsReporting assessment outcomesThe different ways in which the outcomes of assessment processes are reported to theperson being assessed, employers and other appropriate personnel or stakeholders.Assessment outcomes may be reported in a variety of ways including graded,non-graded, statistical or descriptive reporting systems.From Training Package for Assessment and Workplace TrainingScope of registrationScope of registration means the defined scope for which a training organisation isregistered that identifies the particular services and products that can be provided. ARegistered Training Organisation may be registered to provide either:a. training delivery and assessment services and products and issue AustralianQualifications Framework (AQF) qualifications and Statements of Attainment; orb. assessment services and products and issue AQF qualifications and Statements ofAttainment.The scope of registration is further defined by AQF qualifications and/or endorsed units ofcompetency.From AQTF Standards for RTOs
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Self-assessmentSelf-assessment is a process that allows candidates being assessed to collect and provideevidence on their own performances against the competency standards. Self-assessmentis often used as a pre-assessment tool to help the candidate and assessor to determinewhat evidence is available and where the gaps maybe.SimulationSimulation is a form of evidence gathering that involves the candidate in completing ordealing with a task, activity or problem in an off-the-job situation that replicates theworkplace context. Simulations vary from recreating realistic workplace situations such asin the use of flight simulators, through the creation of role plays based on workplacescenarios to the reconstruction of a business situation on a spreadsheet. In developingsimulations, the emphasis is not so much on reproducing the external circumstance buton creating situations in which candidates are able to demonstrate:a. technical skillsb. underpinning knowledgec. generic skills such as decision making and problem solvingd. workplace practices such as effective communication.Skills RecognitionSee Recognition process.Statement of AttainmentStatement of Attainment means a record of recognised learning which, although fallingshort of an Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) qualification, may contributetowards a qualification outcome, either as attainment of competencies within a TrainingPackage, partial completion of a course leading to a qualification or completion of anationally accredited short course which may accumulate towards a qualification throughRecognition processes.From AQTF Standards for RTOsTraining PackageTraining Package means an integrated set of nationally endorsed competency standards,assessment guidelines and Australian Qualifications Framework qualifications for aspecific industry, industry sector or enterprise.From AQTF Standards for RTOsTraining plan – referred to as Training Program Outline (TPO) in WATraining plan means a program of training and assessment which is required under anapprenticeship/traineeship training contract and is registered with the relevant State orTerritory Training/Recognition Authority.From AQTF Standards for RTOsUnit of competencyUnit of competency means the specification of knowledge and skill and the applicationof that knowledge and skill to the standard of performance expected in the workplace.From AQTF Standards for RTOsValidationValidation involves reviewing, comparing and evaluating assessment processes, tools andevidence contributing to judgements made by a range of assessors against the samestandards. Validation strategies may be internal processes with stakeholder involvementor external validations with other providers and/or stakeholders. Also referred to asModeration.
Competency Based Assessment
Guidelines for Competency Based Assessment inVocational Education and Training in Western AustraliaIt is important to the Department of Training to receive your feedback on thisdocument. Your valuable time in completing this brief questionnaire is appreciated.1. Overall, on a scale of 1 to 5, how would you rate this document in the followingcategories?(1 = Poor, 5 = Excellent)
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2. Is the information easy to understand?Yes No3. Have the Guidelines provided you with the information you need on competency basedassessment processes?Yes No4. What information could be clarified, added or deleted to improve the document?5. Are you involved in:Training and Assessment in the workplaceTraining and Assessment in a College or InstitutionAssessment only6. Are you a:Candidate Assessor OtherOptional:Name: Title:Organisation:Address:Phone No: Fax No:Email:Please fax to: Or mail to:(08) 9235-6142 Department of TrainingQuality Assurance and RecognitionLevel 2, 151 Royal StreetEast Perth WA 6004
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