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23 Feb
2021

Describe the characteristics of synovial joints and modified synovial structures.

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Exam 2 (Skeletal System) Study Guide
Exam 2 Short Answer Essay Questions.
51. Describe four functions of the skeletal system. Be sure to explain each of these functions in detail including an example for each.
52. Explain how some aspect of the skeletal system demonstrates form follows function.
Use this study guide to help you review the important information you should know from your notes to be prepared for your exam. The exam format is as follows: 10 TRUE/FALSE, 40 multiple choice (each worth 1 pt) and 2 short answer questions (each worth 5 pts).
Notes: Overview of Bones
· Name the two divisions of the skeletal system and identify bones belonging to each of those divisions.
· Describe the functions of the skeletal system.
· Identify the type of tissue osseous tissue represents.
· Distinguish between the two types of osseous tissue (compact and spongy).
· Classify bones based on their shape.
· Identify and describe the parts of a long bone.
· Distinguish between the two types of bone markings (projections and depressions).
· Identify various terms as being either a projection/process or depression/cavity.
· Describe the structure of compact bone.
· Describe the process of bone formation.
· Distinguish between bone lengthening (bone formation) and bone widening (bone remodeling) and the factors responsible for regulating each.
· Explain the role of PTH, calcitonin, and stress on bone remodeling.
· Distinguish between the different types of bone fractures.
· Describe the steps of bone fracture repair.
Notes: Axial Skeleton
· Identify the bones of the axial skeleton.
· Identify major projections/depressions of the axial skeleton bones.
· Describe the type of movement associated with skull bones.
· Describe how the fetal skull differs from the adult skull and why.
· Know important facts about various bones of the skull pointed out in notes.
· Identify the curvatures of the vertebral column and the number of bones associated with each curvature.
· Distinguish between primary and secondary curvatures.
· Describe the abnormal spinal curvatures.
· Identify the various parts of the vertebrae.
· Distinguish between cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae.
· Identify the parts of the sternum.
· Distinguish between true ribs, false ribs, and floating ribs and their representative numbers.
Notes: Appendicular Skeleton
· Identify the bones of the appendicular skeleton.
· Identify major projections/depressions of the appendicular skeleton bones.
· Differentiate between a female and male pelvis.
Notes: Joints
· Identify how joints are classified both structurally and functionally.
· Identify examples representative of various structural and functional classifications of joints.
· Describe the various types of joints in terms of the amount of movement permitted by each type of joint.
· Describe the various types of joints in terms of the plane of movement represented by each type of joint.
· Describe the characteristics of synovial joints and modified synovial structures.
· Distinguish between the various synovial joints in terms of the amount of movement and plane of movement.
· Identify examples representative of the various types of synovial joints.
· Identify the characteristics of the various inflammatory disorders of joints.
· Distinguish between acute arthritis, chronic arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gouty arthritis.
· Describe how the skeletal system changes as we age.

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