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4 Apr
2021

differentiate between Pure Projects and Matrix Projects

Category:ACADEMICIAN

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MODULE: BCM302 MANAGING PROJECTS
Module Code
BCM 302
Module Level
HE6
Credit Value
20
Module Leader
Dr. Hosein Piranfar
Academic year
2020-21, Term 2
Assignment Brief
1. Purpose of the Assessment
To assess understanding of key principles and theories in Project Management and the ability of the students to apply these principles and theories to business and management.
2. Assessment Task
2.1 AS1 Individual assignment in lieu of examination, weighting 40% of the mark (LO1-LO3), 2000 words
Assignment Title: You are required to differentiate between Pure Projects and Matrix Projects by providing descriptions, diagrams, and by outlining the main advantages and disadvantages of each followed by applications to business or non-business organisations.
Details:
Drawing a diagram and description for each, explain briefly what distinguishes Pure projects from Matrix projects. (400 words)
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of Pure and Matrix projects. (700 words)
Provide real-life application of each in organizations (business or non-business). Make cross-references between 1 & 3. (700 words)
Introduction and conclusions (200 words)
Word Limit: The assessment should be limited to 2,000 words (+/- 10%). If the word count is more than 2,200 words or less than 1800 words you must revise the text judiciously to deliver work within the stated limits.
Style requirements: except for the titles and subtitles, you should not highlight text, which must be in Arial size 11, without indentations. The main title should be highlighted in font size 16, and the subtitles highlighted in size 14. Additionally, the space between lines should be single and the space between paragraphs should be double. The work must be submitted in report form and not essay form requiring an Introduction, the main body with subtitles and a conclusion. [Please don’t use the words main body as a subtitle]
2.2 AS2 Written assignment weighting 60% of the mark (LO3, LO 4) 2500 words
You are provided the data for a construction company project and are required to draw an AON network diagram, perform the required calculations, and discuss why construction projects fail.
Please note that a single-tail Z-Table, a formula, and the case study are attached to the end of this document
Table 1. The construction project data: Activities, predecessors, and probabilistic estimates
Time in
Workdays
Activity Preds
Optim
Most Likely
Pessim
Te (Dur)
Var
A — B — C A, B D C E C F E G C H D, F, G I G, F J H K I, J
8 4 4 32 12 2 8 4 10 4 34
14 8 10 38 18 14 20 10 16 10 50
20 12 16 56 48 26 56 28 34 16 90
Details:
Calculate the expected duration times (Te) and Variances and fill in the data in col.6 and Col.7. Based on data for activities, predecessors, and expected durations, construct an A-O-N network diagram for the above project.
Using the data in the AON diagram, identify the Critical Path (CP), and determine the expected project completion time, its variance, & its standard deviation. Having identified CP (critical activities) distinguish the non-critical activities and calculate the values of total floats for the non-critical activities. You must describe the steps you need to do this. Make sure you draw AON not AOA.
Estimate the probability of meeting a 140-day completion time. What is the probability that the project is delayed beyond 140 days? Estimate the probability that the project is completed between 130 and 150 days. Give your answer to the nearest whole number. Z-table & some formulas are attached to the end of this assignment brief.
Discuss the reasons a construction project like this may fail. Apart from generic reasons, there might be also some additional reasons specific to this short-term project which happens to be part of a larger long-term project aiming at developing mineral water business in the area. Your research should mainly focus on why construction projects fail, and then evaluate the case. A minor step in your research would be to see why running several projects – long-term/short-term – add to the complexity and likelihood of failure (using references).
(case study is attached. This section should be based on this case and the literature)
Only this section requires introduction, conclusion, and references, not the whole AS2.
Word Limit: The assessment should be limited to 2,500 words (+/- 10%). If the word count is more than 2,750 words or less than 2,250 words you must revise the text judiciously to deliver work within the stated limits.
Style requirements: except for the titles and subtitles, you should not highlight text, which must be in Arial size 11, without indentations. The main title should be highlighted in font size 16, and the subtitles highlighted in size 14. Additionally, the space between lines should be single and the space between paragraphs should be double. The work must be submitted in report form and not essay form requiring an Introduction, the main body with subtitles and a conclusion.
3. Sources
It is expected that the Reference List of the report will contain at least fifteen sources. As a MINIMUM the Reference List should include three refereed academic journals and five academic books.
4. Specific Assessment Criteria (Marking scheme)
Please note that the General Assessment Criteria will also apply.
AS1 Individual Assignment, 2000 words weight 40%:
You are expected to differentiate Pure and Matrix projects. Marks will be allocated as follows:
Drawing a diagram for each, explain what distinguishes Pure projects from Matrix projects. (20/100 marks)
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of Pure and Matrix projects. (30/100 marks)
Provide application of each in organizations (business or non-business) (40/100 marks)
Introduction and conclusions (10/100 marks)
Total marks: 100
Good marks will depend on how good you draw the diagrams and differentiate the types, outline the advantages and disadvantages, and more importantly, how relevant your applications are. Pass marks will need basic coverage.
AS2, Individual Assignment, weight 60%:
You are expected to draw an AON diagram with the appropriate calculations and discuss the failure of construction companies. Marks will be allocated as follows:
1. Calculate the expected duration times (Te) and Variances, construct an A-O-N network diagram. (25/100 marks)
2. Identify the Critical Path (CP), project completion time, its variance, its standard deviation, and the total floats. (20/100 marks)
3. Probability of meeting a 140-day completion time, Project delay beyond 140 days? project completion between 130 and 150 days. (15/100 marks)
4.Discuss with reference to the case (annex 1) & literature on construction projects, the reasons a construction project like this may fail. (40/100 marks)
Total marks: 100
Please note these are broad directions for marking and do not replace the detailed titles above
(case study is attached, annex 1. This section should be based on this case and the literature)
Highest marks will be granted to those who provide correct calculations and offer well-referenced arguments wherever appropriate. Basic response to these details with reference will pass, and efforts in between will receive average marks.
5. Assessment Submission
Your assignment must be word processed and presented in a report format with simple sub-headings. The word count should be as specified in the assignment above±10%. Tables, diagrams, the reference list at the end and appendices are excluded from the count.
The Assignment report should have a front sheet showing your name, your student number, the module name, the module number, the assignment title, the module tutor’s name, the date and the actual word count of your submission.
All assignments will be submitted, graded and fed-back electronically via TURNITIN. Several submissions will be permitted before the final hand-in date to enable you to refine the content your report.
To submit your work, please go to the ‘Submit your work’ area of the Module Moodle site. It is important that you submit your work to the correct module Moodle site, and that your work is submitted on time.
Feedback on assignments in general will be provided to the whole group when marked assignments are returned. Feedback on assignments for everyone will be provided electronically via TURNITIN.
A student may obtain an individual appointment to discuss feedback with the tutor.
Submission Deadlines
Assignment AS1: 9th April 2021
Assignment AS2: 17th May 2021
6. Assessment Guidance
General
The quality of your presentation and academic referencing is very important. You must use the Harvard Referencing System.
Within your assignment your tutor will be looking for content that addresses the key elements of the assignment brief.
7. Academic Practice
Amity University [IN] London policy will apply in all cases of copying, plagiarism or any other methods by which students have obtained (or attempted to obtain) an unfair advantage.
Support and guidance on assessments and academic integrity can be found from the following resources:
Moodle / Policies and Procedures
Moodle / Student Corner
8. Learning Outcomes
The learning outcomes being addressed through these assignments are:
LO 1 – Critically analyse the issues facing project managers, directors and sponsors on large rojects.
LO 2 – Critically evaluate projects from a strategic perspective as vehicles for change and adding value.
LO 3 – Synthesise the use of planning and control tools and techniques in a project environment and critically evaluate their efficiency.
LO 4 – Critically evaluate the methods used to extract features of complex systems and projects to facilitate problem solving and decision making
Table 2. Single-tail Z-table
Z Table: Cumulative (Single Tail) Probabilities of the Normal Probability Distribution
(Areas under the Normal Curve from __ to Z)
Example: the area to the left of Z _ 1.34 is found by following the left Z column
down to 1.3 and moving right to the .04 column. At the intersection read .9099.
The area to the right of Z _ 1.34 is 1 _ .9099 _ .0901. The area between the mean
(centre line) and Z _ 1.34 is .9099 _ .5 _ .4099.
z 00 .01 .02 . 03 .04 .05 .06 .07 .08 .09
.0 .5000 .5040 .5080 .5120 .5160 .5199 .5239 .5279 .5319 .5359
.1 .5398 .5438 .5478 .5517 .5557 .5596 .5636 .5675 .5714 .5753
.2 .5793 .5832 .5871 .5910 .5948 .5987 .6026 .6064 .6103 .6141 Practical example of how to use the Table .3 .6179 .6217 .6255 .6293 .6331 .6368 .6406 .6443 .6480 .6517
.4 .6554 .6591 .6628 .6664 .6700 .6736 .6772 .6808 .6844 .6879
.5 .6915 .6950 .6985 .7019 .7054 .7088 .7123 .7157 .7190 .7224
.6 .7257 .7291 .7324 .7357 .7389 .7422 .7454 .7486 .7517 .7549
.7 .7580 .7611 .7642 .7673 .7704 .7734 .7764 .7794 .7823 .7852
.8 .7881 .7910 .7939 .7967 .7995 .8023 .8051 .8078 .8106 .8133
.9 .8159 .8186 .8212 .8238 .8264 .8289 .8315 .8340 .8365 .8389
1.0 .8413 .8438 .8461 .8485 .8508 .8531 .8554 .8577 .8599 .8621
1.1 .8643 .8665 .8686 .8708 .8729 .8749 .8770 .8790 .8810 .8880
1.2 .8849 .8869 .8888 .8907 .8925 .8944 .8962 .8980 .8997 .9015
1.3 .9032 .9049 .9066 .9082 .9099 .9115 .9131 .9147 .9162 .9177
1.4 .9192 .9207 .9222 .9236 .9251 .9265 .9279 .9292 .9306 .9319
Important formula for the probability of desired completion of project
Z = (D – μ)/
D = desired project completion time: 90 days for example
μ = the sum of the TE expected activities on the critical path
σ2u = the variance of the path being considered
Standard deviation of the path = 1.5 .9332 .9345 .9357 .9370 .9382 .9394 .9406 .9418 .9429 .9441
1.6 .9452 .9463 .9474 .9484 .9495 .9505 .9515 .9525 .9535 .9545
1.7 .9554 .9564 .9573 .9582 .9591 .9599 .9608 .9616 .9625 .9633
1.8 .9641 .9649 .9656 .9664 .9671 .9678 .9686 .9693 .9699 .9706
1.9 .9713 .9719 .9726 .9732 .9738 .9744 .9750 .9756 .9761 .9767
2.0 .9772 .9778 .9783 .9788 .9793 .9798 .9803 .9808 .9812 .9817
2.1 .9821 .9826 .9830 .9834 .9838 .9842 .9846 .9850 .9854 .9857
2.2 .9861 .9864 .9868 .9871 .9875 .9878 .9881 .9884 .9887 .9890
2.3 .9893 .9896 .9898 .9901 .9904 .9906 .9909 .9911 .9913 .9916
2.4 .9918 .9920 .9932 .9925 .9927 .9929 .9931 .9932 .9934 .9936
2.5 .9938 .9940 .9941 .9943 .9945 .9946 .9948 .9949 .9951 .9952
2.6 .9953 .9955 .9956 .9957 .9959 .9960 .9961 .9962 .9963 .9964
2.7 .9965 .9966 .9967 .9968 .9969 .9970 .9971 .9972 .9973 .9974
2.8 .9974 .9975 .9976 .9977 .9977 .9978 .9979 .9979 .9980 .9981
2.9 .9981 .9982 .9982 .9983 .9984 .9984 .9985 .9985 .9986 .9986
3.0 .9987 .9987 .9987 .9988 .9988 .9989 .9989 .9989 .9990 .9990
3.1 .9990 .9991 .9991 .9991 .9992 .9992 .9992 .9992 .9993 .9993
3.2 .9993 .9993 .9994 .9994 .9994 .9994 .9994 .9995 .9995 .9995
3.3 .9995 .9995 .9995 .9996 .9996 .9996 .9996 .9996 .9996 .9997
3.4 .9997 .9997 .9997 .9997 .9997 .9997 .9997 .9997 .9997 .9998
Annex 1, Case Study:
Construction project manager JC is sitting outside his bungalow by the stream Jacob’s Creek reading a local newspaper, sipping a cup of herb tea, and gazing at the hillside footpath in between. He reads some positive news about the five-year-long project and its impact on local employment. The paper also expresses worries about housing the 500 people needed for the construction some of whom would still be employed to produce mineral water in the site when the second part of the project started. JC wears a checkered shirt, a cowboy hat, and heavy-duty walking boots. Occasionally, he meets some of his old fellow Pennine walkers with great nostalgia. Helen, a keen walker when she was a young girl, stands by the bungalow with her grandchildren playing by the river, and talks to JC, an old friend, on the benefits of the local herbs, where they grow, and in what quantities. JC takes note thinking that it could be useful for the minerals project, the 2nd part of the big project. David, an old schoolmate sits by him eating his delicately wrapped sandwich and gives advice on building a hotel to house the employees of the mineral’s project. He says when the project is finished there would still be a need for the hotel to house the future employees of the company producing the bottles, the Pennine walkers, and curious tourists. But he admitted that it would add to the complexity. Dawn an ex fellow walker, now a retired professor of oncology, is as usual full of jokes, sipping her coffee from a flask and talking about the medical benefits of the hill waters. She said don’t expect walkers to pay, they would just come to use the toilet for free. However, among the old visitors there was also Sally, the daughter of a local novelist, still with sharp blue eyes, who warned JC of the future opposition of the local environmentalists to the project and its extension but she added: If you make some improvements to the muddy footpaths, build some herb gardens, add a mountain shelter (or a small hotel), and spend some money on advertising the project’s benefits to the local employment you may be able to butt down the opposition. While pondering over Sally’s advice, and the additional costs in his budget, JC saw Richard Russel, a researcher on gypsies crossing the river and shouting: Don’t forget to build a blooming public toilet for the mountaineers!
On that note JC went inside the shed-cum-bungalow to ponder over the scope creep in Jacob’s creep project and re-adjusted the budget estimates. He couldn’t sleep all night worrying about additional costs of training, accommodating, and even feeding the workforce, let alone the healthcare in a distant mountain hill in South Yorkshire. Next morning, he saw a menacing letter from the leader of the mineral’s project that they were worried about the likely delays and that JC should cut down on the environmental nonsense to focus on finishing his construction project. The letter said: JC ‘should surround himself with scientists and technology experts rather than ex-hippies and herb tea drinkers’ meaning the environmentalists. JC cursed the complexity of linked-up projects: ‘I am tuning up my construction project to the minerals’ project by using the beneficial local advice and yet instead of gratitude I get a lot of hostility and budget restrictions. On his way back from the hills, Richard came down for a tea with JC and listened to his worries:
‘The distance from the company located in London is only one barrier to invite experts to the site or send team members along with some key workers to London for training. Most of the team members are local people with families who do not like to go to London for long. Even if they were happy to travel, the company would remain reluctant to commit itself to new expenses.’ Richard nodded and said: when you are far away from the decision centre you also get communications problem. JC agreed and turned his attention to other problems: The rules and regulations are the biggest problem: We want a high rise building but our location attracts rules and regulations that do not allow such buildings adding to costs and the fury of the environmentalists.
To comfort him Richard said at least you have good relations with the team members all 20 of them being old friends. Yes, they don’t argue with me, said JC, but they get into some conflicts when it floods in the valley or the heavy snow blocks the road from Sheffield. Their work is interdependent, which means that when a few are absent, esp. the more technical guys nobody else can work. Moreover, the people you knew 20-30 years ago may still look the same in certain aspects but when a conflict flares up a lot of hidden changes in them come to the surface. Sometimes I think I wish I didn’t know them, then at least I could impose some discipline on them. Don’t tell me you have conflicts with the company too said Richard. Unfortunately we do: The minerals project has money and they used to finance us for the scope creep they caused in the building plans, but now they refuse as they are worried about their future markets due to Brexit and now the Virus. Richard shook his head with sorrow and left to Edale, a village with a pub two miles away saying that I am going to walk to Edale for a pint and probably sleep there. Thinking about the Brexit effect on marketing the future products and Corvid 19, JC said good night and fell asleep in the solacing thought that he knew so many people who could help and guide him: I am at “ome” in Yorkshire.” [local pronunciation of home]
JC
General Assessment Guidelines for Written Assessments Level HE6
%
Relevance
Knowledge
Argument/Analysis
Structure
Presentation
Written English
Research/Referencing
Class I(Exceptional Quality)
85-100%
Directly relevant to title. Expertly addresses the assumptions of the title and/or the requirements of the brief.
Demonstrates an exceptional knowledge/ understanding of theory and practice for this level through the identification and analysis of the most important issues.
Makes exceptional use of appropriate arguments and/or theoretical models. Presents an analysis of the material resulting in clear, logical and original conclusions.
Coherently articulated and logically structured.An appropriate format is used.
The presentational style & layout is correct for the type of assignment. Effective inclusion of figures, tables, plates (FTP).
An exceptionally well written answer with standard spelling and grammar. Style is clear, resourceful and academic.
Sources accurately cited in the text. A wide range of contemporary and relevant references cited in the reference list in the correct style.
Class I(Excellent Quality)
70-84%
Directly relevant to title. Addresses the assumptions of the title and/or the requirements of the brief.
Demonstrates an excellent knowledge/understanding of theory and practice for this level through the identification and summary of the most important issues.
Makes creative use of appropriate arguments and/or theoretical models. Presents an excellent discussion of the material resulting in clear, logical conclusions.
Coherently articulated and logically structured. An appropriate format is used.
The presentational style & layout is correct for the type of assignment. Effective inclusion of figures, tables, plates (FTP).
An excellently writtenanswer with standard spelling and grammar. Style is clear, resourceful and academic.
Sources accurately cited in the text. A range of contemporary and relevant references cited in the reference list in the correct style.
Class II/i(Very Good Quality)
60-69%
Directly relevant to title. Addresses most of the assumptions of the title and/or the requirements of the brief.
Demonstrates a very good knowledge/understanding of theory and practice for this level through the identification and summary of key issues.
Uses sound arguments or theoretical models. Presents a clear and valid discussion of the material. Clear, logical conclusions.
Logically constructed in the main. An appropriate format is used.
The presentational style & layout is correct for the type of assignment. Effective inclusion of FTP.
A very well written answer with standard spelling and grammar. Style is clear and academic.
Sources are accurately cited in the text and an appropriate reference list in the correct style is provided.
Class II/ii(Good Quality)
50-59%
Generally, addresses the title/brief, but sometimes considers irrelevant issues.
Demonstrates a good knowledge/understanding of theory and practice for this level through the identification and summary of some key issues.
Presents largely coherent arguments. Some issues and theoretical models expressed in simplistic terms. Conclusions are fairly clear and logical.
For the most part coherently articulated and logically structured. An acceptable format is used.
The presentational style & layout is correct for the type of assignment. Inclusion of FTP but lacks selectivity.
Competently written with minor lapses in spelling and grammar. Style is readable and academic in the main.
Most sources accurately cited in the text and an appropriate reference list is provided which is largely in the correct style.
Class III(Satisfactory Quality)
40-49%
Some degree of irrelevance to the title/brief. Superficial consideration of the issues.
Demonstrates an adequate knowledge/understanding of theory and practice for this level. An attempt is made to identify key issues.
Presents basic arguments but focus and consistency lacking in places. Some issues may lack clarity, and/or theoretical models expressed in simplistic terms. Conclusions are not always clear or logical.
Adequate attempt at articulation and logical structure. An acceptable format is used.
The presentational style & layout is largely correct for the type of assignment. Inappropriate use of FTP or not used where clearly needed to aid understanding.
Generally, competently written although intermittent lapses in grammar and spelling pose obstacles for the reader. Style limits communication and is non-academic in a number of places.
Some relevant sources cited.Some weaknesses in referencing technique.
Borderline Fail
35-39%
Significant degree of irrelevance to the title/brief. Only the most obvious issues are addressed at a superficial level and in unchallenging terms.
Demonstrates weaknesses in knowledge of theory and practice for this level, with poor understanding of key issues.
Limited arguments, which lack clarity in places. Conclusions are neither clear nor logical.
Poorly structured.Lack of articulation. Format deficient.
For the type of assignment, the presentational style &/or layout is lacking. FTP ignored in text or not used where clearly needed.
Deficiencies in spelling and grammar makes reading difficult. Simplistic or repetitious style impairs clarity. Style is non-academic.
Limited sources and weak referencing.
Fail
<34%
Relevance to the title/brief is intermittent or missing. The topic is reduced to its vaguest and least challenging terms.
Demonstrates a lack of basic knowledge of either theory or practice for this level, with little evidence of understanding.
Severely limited arguments. Lacks clarity. Conclusions are sparse.
Unstructured. Lack of articulation. Format deficient
For the type of assignment the presentational style &/or layout is lacking. FTP as above.
Poorly written with numerous deficiencies in grammar, spelling and expression. Style is non-academic.
An absence of academic sources and poor referencing technique.

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