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17 Sep
2020

Directions: Read the following hypothetical situation. Upon completion, please identify all points at which…

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Directions: Read the following hypothetical situation. Upon completion, please identify all points at which hearsay is present, also listing any possible exceptions that may apply. Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Directions: read the following hypothetical situation. upon Just from $13/Page Order Essay Facts: John has been arrested for attempted murder. His accuser, Lisa, claims that John tried to poison her by putting arsenic in her coffee. The following witnesses are being asked to testify at trial: Karl works at a hardware store and recalls John’s buying a box of arsenic. As Karl wrote out the receipt, John said, we’ve got a real pest I’ve got to get rid of.” Tina is John’s sister. She claims that John’s friend, Mike, admitted that he poisoned the coffee. However, Mike apparently drank out of the wrong cup and wound up poisoning himself. Mike slowly sank into a coma and died before he could testify. Fred is being asked to testify that he saw John putting a substance into a cup that Lisa was drinking from. Stella is John’s former girlfriend. She claims that John told her, “I’m gonna get even with Lisa one of these days.” Hal was an inmate in the same jail cell as John. Hal claims that John told him, “I didn’t do anything wrong.” Ralph wants to testify that he heard Lisa state, “I’m going to make sure John spends the rest of his life in jail by poisoning myself.” Ruby is going to recount at a worker’s compensation hearing the substance of a conversation that she had with Lisa in which Lisa admitted that she was not really too emotionally upset to work, as she had previously claimed.
Liberty University BUSI 604 Test 2 Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Liberty university busi 604 test
Liberty University BUSI 604 Test 2 Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Liberty university busi 604 test 2 Just from $13/Page Order Essay Question 1 2 out of 2 points The public begins to experience the e”ects of deflation with an expanding money supply. Selected Answer: Question 2 2 out of 2 points Global financial markets are important to lenders for two major reasons: (1) expanding ( ) and (2) reducing ( ). Selected Answer: Question 3 2 out of 2 points ( ) is considered a sign of economic recovery and stabilization but makes the currency of a country more expensive compared to other currencies, having a direct inverse e”ect on exports and imports. Selected Answer: Revaluation Question 4 2 out of 2 points While hedging may protect against ( ), it may eliminate a potential for unexpected ( ). Selected Answer: Question 5 2 out of 2 points ( )is the largest informational platform that international traders use to communicate FX exchange rates. Selected Answer: Question 6 0 out of 2 points The end result of the global competition is higher ( ) and lower ( ) for consumers. Selected Answer: prices; exchange rates Question 7 2 out of 2 points In the United States, the Federal Reserve Bank is responsible for regulating the growth of the economy, which is accomplished by the increase or decrease of currency exchange. Selected Answer: Question 8 2 out of 2 points The two most popular products traded on security exchange markets are stocks and treasury bills. Selected Answer: Question 9 2 out of 2 points After the Gold Standard was discontinued in 1971, the ( ) followed the rule of supply and demand, and currencies started to flow freely between sellers and buyers in currency markets. Selected Answer: Question 10 2 out of 2 points Volatility represents the possibility of a change in exchange rates projected over a year. Selected Answer: Question 11 0 out of 2 points Many nations restrict hedging of their currencies due to their national and international policies and interests. Selected Answer: Question 12 2 out of 2 points Since the world thrives to trade and does not have a uniformed international currency, the exchange rate from one currency to another is determined by ( ) and ( ) on a given day on the FX Market. Selected Answer: Question 13 2 out of 2 points ( ) are used as an alternative to borrowing and lending in the Eurodollar and other o”shore markets. Selected Answer: FX swaps Question 14 2 out of 2 points A bond is a certificate with a certain monetary value. Selected Answer: Question 15 2 out of 2 points The di”erence between a ( ) rate and a ( ) rate is termed a forward discount. Selected Answer: Question 16 2 out of 2 points In the U.S., the Security Exchange Commission monitors activities of exchange markets and OTC markets. Selected Answer: Question 17 0 out of 2 points The major di”erence between the currency futures market and the OTC market is that futures settle gains and losses on a daily basis through the margin mechanism. Selected Answer: Question 18 2 out of 2 points The ( ) monitors the various companies and organizations that are quoted on the security exchange and make sure they meet the requirements for being listed. Selected Answer: Question 19 2 out of 2 points Non-tari” barriers involve financial methods (e.g., taxes on imports) of protecting national industries from competition by foreign corporations. Selected Answer: Question 20 0 out of 2 points ( ) is the United States’ second largest trading partner in Africa behind Nigeria whose exports are almost exclusively petroleum products. Selected Answer: Question 21 2 out of 2 points ASEAN association members also undertake to avoid interference in the internal a”airs of one another and are committed to the settlement of di”erences or disputes by peaceful means. Selected Answer: Question 22 2 out of 2 points ( ), executive body of the EU, drafts and implements legislation and enforces existing treaties. Selected Answer: Question 23 2 out of 2 points The ( ) operates as a common market, granting national treatment to all ( ) firms and citizens in any other ( ) country, as well as removing all barriers to cross country investment and services trade. Selected Answer: Question 24 2 out of 2 points Member nations of ECOWAS have tried to agree on a common currency: the Euro. Selected Answer: Question 25 2 out of 2 points Signatory nations a part of CACM have not been able to achieve their wider aims of stronger economic and political unification because of a failure to settle ( ). Selected Answer: Trade disputes Question 26 2 out of 2 points More than 60 percent of Africa’s people depend upon agriculture, with farming being mostly of the subsistence variety. Selected Answer: Question 27 2 out of 2 points The stages of regional economic integration are as follows: Free Trade Agreement, ( ), Common Market, Economic Union, and ( ). Selected Answer: Question 28 0 out of 2 points Increasing attention is being paid to the rapidly growing economies of ( ) and ( ), as they evolve from primarily agricultural dependence into industrial giants with regional superpower status. Selected Answer: Question 29 2 out of 2 points ( ) has been stripped of its member rights to Mercosur and must renegotiate its membership. Selected Answer: Question 30 2 out of 2 points The Economic Union requires that member countries harmonize their tax, monetary and fiscal policies, create a common currency, and concede a certain amount of sovereignty to the supranational organization to which they belong. Selected Answer: Question 31 2 out of 2 points The SACU and ( ) consider industry, labor rights, and environmental regulations very important to the prosperity of the SACU region. Selected Answer: United States Question 32 2 out of 2 points Freedom and the absence of random violence is not one of the five basic goals espoused by national governments. Selected Answer: Question 33 2 out of 2 points Preferential Trade Areas are suitable in cases where economic structures in signatory nations complement one another and trade in products that do not compete with each other. Selected Answer: Question 34 0 out of 2 points Opponents of ( ) have argued that the related agreements are dangerous because such agreements advance and establish procedures that protect participating nations from the benefits of free trade. Selected Answer: Question 35 2 out of 2 points The Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) is an example of a ( ). Selected Answer: Question 36 2 out of 2 points Trading blocs can provide protection from global competitiveness prompted by nations outside of the bloc. Selected Answer: Question 37 2 out of 2 points The Schengen Agreement abolished passport and border controls within the internal-national boundaries of the EU, with the aim to eliminate barriers to trade, investment, and the movement of labor. Selected Answer: Question 38 2 out of 2 points When strong global competition is scarce, the global firm should perform well, even though it does not develop global-market-knowledge competencies or global responsiveness. Selected Answer: Question 39 2 out of 2 points Economic factors that a”ect a firm involve the beliefs, values, attitudes, opinions, and lifestyles of persons in the firm’s external environment. Selected Answer: Question 40 0 out of 2 points Intermediaries are often considered “coaches” or outside consultants brought in to help steer the firm in the right exporting direction. Selected Answer: Question 41 2 out of 2 points ( ) constraints are placed on firms through fair-trade decisions, antitrust laws, tax programs, minimum wage, legislation, pollution and pricing policies, administrative jawboning, and many other actions aimed at protecting employees, consumers, the general public, and the environment. Selected Answer: Question 42 2 out of 2 points Possibly the greatest proactive motivation for global expansion is the prospect of ( ). Selected Answer: Increased profits Question 43 2 out of 2 points Market entry motivation can be classified into two separate areas: (1) ( ) and (2) ( ). Selected Answer: Question 44 2 out of 2 points Two types of entry modes are available into a market: ( ) intensity or ( ) intensity. Selected Answer: Question 45 2 out of 2 points A licensor must invest into the foreign market because the licensee (more than likely) is not established in the market. Selected Answer: Question 46 2 out of 2 points One advantage of a management contract is that the host nation provides the funds for any infrastructure associated with the project management. Selected Answer: Question 47 2 out of 2 points Exporting and importing are great examples of high-risk entry modes into a new market. Selected Answer: Question 48 2 out of 2 points Entering the market at the right time, or the wrong time can have tremendous e”ects on the success or failure of the expansion. Selected Answer: Question 49 2 out of 2 points The key factors that influence the entry mode selection are as follows: Selected Answer: organization structure Question 50 2 out of 2 points In industries subject to high technological turbulence, the organizations will enjoy abnormal returns from alternative opportunities, rather than those created by their market knowledge competencies. Selected Answer: Question 51 2 out of 2 points Intermediaries can facilitate the transfer of goods and services from a company to the consumer in a new market. Selected Answer: Question 52 2 out of 2 points Low production cost in a country encourages local production. Selected Answer: Question 53 2 out of 2 points In attractive markets, short-term profitability for a firm is expected to be provided through these investment modes. Selected Answer: Question 54 2 out of 2 points The main di”erence between the two entry modes depends on how much risk and/or control an entering business is willing to take. Selected Answer: Question 55 0 out of 2 points Proactive reasons are based on the firm’s behavior with respect to the environment and adaptation to changes from outside the firm. Selected Answer: Question 56 2 out of 2 points Firms are better o” selecting non-equity, ( )-investment entry modes in countries that have high environmental uncertainty. Selected Answer: Question 57 2 out of 2 points Inventory turnover rates being slower than expected are indicative of a global business experiencing inventory problems. Selected Answer: Question 58 2 out of 2 points Currently, 3PLs are limited to noncritical processes within an organization. Selected Answer: Question 59 2 out of 2 points An interlocking directorate allows the organization the opportunity to more e”ectively coordinate the output of raw materials to meet the needs of the manufacturing operation. Selected Answer: Question 60 2 out of 2 points In product-oriented firms, capacity is measured in terms of the total number of customers that can be served in a given amount of time. Selected Answer: Question 61 2 out of 2 points The strategy of standardization requires the firm to tailor mass production products to meet the expectations of the customer. Selected Answer: Question 62 2 out of 2 points Quality e”orts begin and end with lower level employees. Selected Answer: Question 63 2 out of 2 points Becoming ISO certified requires the inspection of production processes, maintaining equipment, training workers, testing products, and dealing with customer complaints. Selected Answer: Question 64 2 out of 2 points ( ) is a codification or assurance of quality – an internationally recognized certification system or process. Selected Answer: ISO Question 65 2 out of 2 points Fixed assets includes items normally consumed in the course of business operation or production. Selected Answer: Question 66 2 out of 2 points The free-flow pattern provides customers ease of movement and is visually appealing. Selected Answer: Question 67 2 out of 2 points ( ) defines the goal or purpose of the organization, while ( ) defines how personnel will collectively implement the strategy. Selected Answer: Question 68 2 out of 2 points It is crucial for a company to reevaluate strategic level decisions at least once a year. Selected Answer: Question 69 2 out of 2 points Financial management specifically involves the management of the process and production activities that produce the goods or services. Selected Answer: Question 70 2 out of 2 points The decentralized model allows decision-making authority to occur where the decisions are to be made, promoting innovation, initiative, and teamwork. Selected Answer: Question 71 2 out of 2 points ( ) involves both management and labor in finding and eliminating waste in machinery, labor, materials, and production methods. Selected Answer: Question 72 2 out of 2 points In the physical inventory control category, calculations are made to maintain sufficient inventories for predetermined supply chain system needs. Selected Answer: Question 73 2 out of 2 points The intention behind ( ) management systems is to concentrate on eradicating waste and reducing warehouse inventories. Selected Answer: Question 74 2 out of 2 points Kazan is a people-focused management system that aims at continual increase in customer satisfaction at continually lower real cost. Selected Answer: Question 75 2 out of 2 points ( ) provide(s) the additional benefit of tax breaks, resulting from depreciation. Selected Answer: Friday, May 18, 2018 9:51:35 PM EDT ← OK
Multiple and interrelated benefits it would be a mistake to leave
Multiple and Interrelated Benefits It would be a mistake to leave the reader with the conclusion that most social policies and social programs pursue their objectives through single benefit or service strategies. Although there are instances of that, it is not the general case, especially in relation to programs that intend to deal with the social problem of poverty. It is common for citizens to think of programs like Social Security or even unemployment security as providing only a single benefit, but in fact eligibility for one benefit form very often automatically qualifies a person for multiple benefits. The fact of interrelated benefit packages certainly makes the analysis of social policy with respect to benefit forms, in particular, a lively and complex venture. It is not surprising that programs and policies should have more than a single kind of benefit; after all, we have already seen that multiple goals or objectives are commonplace. Where that is the case and where such goals are diverse it would be expected that different benefit types and thus multiple benefits would occur. Lewis and Morrison found that multiple benefits can occur in two major forms: (1) benefits from one program can alter benefits in other programs and (2) program benefits can change personal tax liability.6 The U.S. Unemployment Insurance (UI) program is an example of a benefit that generates multiple benefits: eligible, involuntarily unemployed workers might receive both a cash payment, services from the state vocational and rehabilitation service, and referral to employers searching for workers. The purpose of rehabilitation services is to retrain the employee and to provide trained and ready-to-work employees for employers. Maintaining the stability of a large workforce for the economic enterprise of the country as well as for relief of unemployment is a goal of the UI program. The TANF program (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) is another example of a highly complex package of benefits and services. It is difficult to elaborate because of interstate variation, but the list that follows characterizes the most general case: a cash benefit, a medical card, child support enforcement, special food allowance for infants and pregnant mothers, vocational training, family planning services, and so forth. Notice that elements in this benefit package are mostly compulsory: child support enforcement, job searches, and/or vocational training are compulsory. In the past, “benefits” were sometimes used punitively against clients: sterilization, family planning, and abortion. Furthermore, some program policies automatically disqualify a recipient from benefits from another program. We will discuss those complex examples in Chapter 9, which deals with program and policy interrelationships. Criteria for Evaluating the Merit of Benefit and Service Types Stigmatization, Cost-Effectiveness, Substitutability, Target Efficiency, and Trade-Offs Whenever there is a benefit to be given in remedy of a specific tangible need, it can be given in the form of cash or it can be given it in the form of directly consumable articles (e.g., food or clothing). The question is: “Which form is best, why, and from what point of view?” Almost all U.S. public benefits available in income maintenance programs could be given in kind. The issue touches on more than income-related benefits. Think for a moment about the delivery of medical care benefits and services. A cash approach would give dollars directly to families in need, that amount equivalent to whatever was the price of the necessary medical care. This benefit is most commonly given not in the form of cash, but in the form of a credit or voucher—a strategy that is more related to an in-kind benefit than a cash strategy. Such examples serve to illustrate how the evaluation criteria apply to this general question. From the consumer’s point of view, the major difference is the degree to which a choice can be exercised with regard to the goods or services delivered—the evaluation criterion we earlier called consumer sovereignty. From the benefit giver’s point of view, the major difference is the ability to exercise control over the nature of the article and the way it is consumed—the evaluation criterion we earlier called target efficiency. If a family needs cheese and you give them $5 to buy it, the family can decide whom to buy it from, when to make the purchase, under what conditions, and at what price—an example of maximum consumer sovereignty. If you give the family a letter telling the cheese store to give the family $5 worth of cheddar and to add it to your bill, the choices that can be made by the family are thereby limited. But notice that from the point of view of the benefit giver (the person who is paying for the cheese), it may be important to restrict the choices. For example, the benefit giver may get a special price from the cheese dealer if a great deal of cheese is purchased this way and our cheese dealer can purchase more economically if he can count on volume sales. Not only that, the merchant knows that no advertising expense is incurred. Thus, the benefit giver is able to help more hungry people because cheese can be purchased for less in an in-kind, rather than a cash, benefit form. Under this condition (but only this condition), giving the benefit in an in-kind form satisfies the evaluation criterion of cost-effectiveness—the benefit is delivered at a cost that is effectively the lowest relative to the other available and practical forms and means of delivery. Note that it is also true that the benefit goes directly for the specific social problem of concern—hunger. This is an example of the evaluation criterion called target efficiency, a virtue here because the efficiency involved makes it possible to benefit more hungry people. There is not much else to do with cheese except eat it, though a genuinely imaginative person might use it to catch mice, or sell it to a neighbor at a cut-rate price, or trade it for another commodity. And, of course, there is a well-known street trade in food stamps. Here are the arguments against the preceding conclusions. With regard to the lower expense of in-kind benefits, they say, it is not entirely clear whether economies of scale work in a way that inevitably yields a lower unit cost than cash (and, thus, generate a cost-effective benefit form). A person can take the view that the only way to establish a true cost is through an exchange in a free market, even a cheese market. How can the benefit giver really know that the price charged by the cheese merchant was the best price on that day for that amount of cheese of that particular kind? Whereas the price quoted to the in-kind benefit giver may have been the best price the benefit giver could have obtained that day, suppose there was a cheese crisis the day following; if the family had cash with which to deal, they might have obtained twice as much cheese for half the price. On the other hand, the cheese merchant may have had bad luck selling his Swiss that week and would’ve sold twice as much to the family for half the price. (Of course, it might also have worked in exactly the opposite direction.) The same argument raises an objection to an extension of social control via the purchase of cheese. The cost to the family is a lack of consumer autonomy, and that makes them even more dependent and less able to cope with the stresses of life. After all, this argument goes, independence and self-reliance are built on experience in such small matters as deciding whether to buy cheddar, Swiss, or mozzarella. Notice how important are the details, for it is on them that the ultimate conclusion depends. Notice the trade-offs operating here between the various evaluation criteria. A trade-off occurs when the policy system has to suffer some disadvantage in order to get another advantage. In general, benefits delivered in the form of cash increase consumer sovereignty and reduce target efficiency. Another example of trade-offs is with regard to programs to reduce poverty. When such programs create low unemployment (a virtue), economists believe that they will invariably increase inflation (a vice) as more employed workers become consumers with money to spend. Although considered by economists to be a side effect—and certainly it is in the sense that it was not intended—it is undeniably an important effect on the lives of most people. But then it pays to notice that economists aren’t always right: In the 1994–1998 period of historically low unemployment rates, inflation did not appear as economists predicted. Somewhat more serious is the argument that the price of in-kind benefits is stigmatization. When the consumption or acquisition of benefits is public, certain kinds of items become associated with “being on welfare,” and negative attributions are made to those so identified. Although someone seen eating a slice of cheddar cheese attracts little attention, it certainly is the case that disparaging comments are made to women who spend WIC vouchers in grocery stores (a mild form of in-kind benefit). According to Terkel, local welfare agencies bought certain kinds of shoes and dresses during the depression, and those who wore them were sure to inspire negative comments from others.7 Some of these objections to in-kind benefit forms do not apply in all instances; it is surely not the case that all noncash forms stigmatize recipients—not all consumption or delivery of the article or good is public. For example, one way to avoid public consumption or delivery of foodstuffs in a noncash form is to use a subsidy method that was common in England. If the U.S. government wished to increase the nutritional level of its low-income citizens, it could subsidize the price of a popular food to the point where it could become the least expensive, most nutritious food available (e.g., bread or milk products). The public treasury could subsidize the bakers or grocers, perhaps 40 cents a loaf; every month, those vendors would tote up how many loaves they sold and submit a bill to the public treasury. In return, they would agree to sell bread for half the former price, maybe 35 cents a loaf. Thus, the consumer gets bread at a reduction and the baker or grocer still makes a profit. Would the consumption of bread increase? Very likely. Would consumers be stigmatized for buying bread? Not very likely, because everyone pays the same price. Would the benefit go only to those who “really” need it? No, because there would be considerable “seepage” to those not in low-income brackets (again, a question about the target efficiency criterion). Would this form of the benefit be more cost-effective than cash? That question can be answered only through the empirical study of increased nutrition as a result of the increased use of the subsidized foodstuffs The increase in nutrition resulting from the cash-benefit strategy would also have to be studied and the net results of the two compared. Note that the cost of achieving the nutritional goal is the cost of the subsidy for the foodstuffs actually bought by the poor; the cost of the destigmatization of the in-kind strategy is exactly the cost of subsidizing the foodstuffs bought by the nonpoor. Thus, in this case, the exact cost of the trade-off can be specified. Those who strongly support cash benefits argue that such a benefit form clearly has an advantage along the lines of ensuring consumer sovereignty by means of which receivers maintain control over when, what, and how things are bought. From the consumer’s point of view, that autonomy is a major issue. The Political and Public Administration Viewpoint How does all this look from the benefit giver’s view, the perspective of the legislature, and the public program manager? Politicians and bureaucrats have their own preferences for benefit forms, as well as evaluation criteria of their own. Linder and Peters think that one such is administrative complexity, for example.8 It’s only natural to expect that public administrators will value a benefit form that is simple rather than complicated to administer. It would seem preferable to administer a fairly simple program delivering a partial cash subsidy to the elderly to pay part of their winter heating bill rather than administer an in-kind commodity program for the same purpose—one in which the benefit would be gas or oil or electricity (or cow chips for that matter), which the government owned and would deliver directly to consumers. Think of the problems of storage, delivery, services, and all the rest. A cash benefit places the responsibility on the beneficiary for obtaining the product needed and, thus, avoids the administrative complexities. Or consider a program that delivers services for severely mentally ill children. Such a program may involve such complexities as administering income or asset tests to a wide variety of income levels (e.g., to determine whether to charge for hospitalization); coordinating the program activities of a wide variety of professionals; facing high costs per case and treatment strategies of uncertain and sometimes controversial validity to consumers potentially capable of deviant and antisocial behavior. On the other hand, the public policy may choose to deliver this benefit in a form that simply subsidizes the costs of such services in the private sector by the consumer. In this case, the public administrator looks to the cost issues and struggles with determining whether charges are fair and whether services were actually delivered, but certainly that is less complex than taking responsibility for their actual delivery. The form taken by the benefit is determining here. Material, hard benefits are obviously simpler to administer than personal social services, which are often intangible and often controversial as to their effectiveness. It is quite likely that less complex practices also entail low administrative cost, another evaluation criterion of preference to public administrators and political figures who must account to the public in such matters. Another evaluation criterion common to public administration and the political context is the extent of adaptability across different kinds of users. A subsidy (equivalent to cash) is obviously quite adaptable to different kinds of users: those who heat with gas versus electricity; those who live in apartments versus their own homes; those who live in rural areas versus central cities. An in-kind benefit may not be so adaptable across the diverse users in those examples. Political risk is also an evaluation criterion in this context; for example, the level of public visibility of the benefit form may be an issue here. The cash-equivalent subsidy for the winter heating program for the low-income elderly is quite invisible in that such programs can be handled via the U.S. mail. Note, however, that even if benefit receipt were visible, in this case it might be a political advantage rather than a liability; the viewpoint in our society is that the low-income elderly are surely “deserving poor,” and that a politician who helps them projects the image of a social and moral conscience—good political images, no doubt. Contrast the level of political risk via the high public visibility of a program that generates benefits in the form of psychiatric services for severely mentally ill children. Because such children are capable of social deviance, they can be highly visible to a sensitive public and if the benefits (no matter how great or obvious the need for them) are delivered to a population group that is considered deviant, the political risk is high. It is widely believed among social historians that the popularity of mental institutions as a benefit form for the severely mentally ill or shelters for the homeless are, in the first instance, appealing to politicians and public administrators simply because such institutions effectively reduce the visibility to the public (hence the political risk) of the targeted social problem and the people who are subject to it.9 Finally, another evaluation criterion, potential for failure to reduce or soften the impact of the social problem, should attract the attention of the reader. There are few social programs that have an unmitigated record of success. New programs should actually be thought of as experimental ventures and should be proposed to decision makers as exactly that. Too many unkept promises, and too many disappointments on the part of those who fund programs create an enduring pessimism that will come to haunt social program providers in the future. This evaluation criterion points to that issue; surely, before politically astute legislators make a public commitment in support of a social program, they make calculations of their potential for failure. Those who seek funding should be prepared to make statements about the probability for success of their program design. Furthermore, they should also be prepared to make proposals as clear experiments on ideas that have no history. Experimental failures are not a moral mistake; program failures, for which success has been widely advertised, are immense political mistakes. Criteria for Evaluating the Merit of Benefit Types: Consumer Sovereignty, Coercion, and Intrusiveness This section considers an evaluation criterion that is preferred by the authors/analysts: consumer sovereignty. One argument for its generally positive effects is that it allows for making choices—a strengths approach. The cash benefit expended contributes to the support of the general public economy in ways that in-kind benefits cannot. Cash benefits support ordinary businesses and ordinary employers and employees. In-kind benefits, if they are to achieve their major advantages of economy of scale and expense reduction, must enter a special market at the producer and wholesaler levels—certainly not the same retail market corridor used by the ordinary citizen/consumer. Support of that market bypasses many free markets, and in a way, that costs jobs because employers will not need the employees that are created by the additional cash demand for goods and products. In the long run, this argument speaks to the appealing idea of creating more employment and more taxes paid by a mechanism that remains faithful to a cash market system; cash benefits ensure that “the consumer is king.” The point is that, in contrast to in-kind benefits, cash benefits have capacity for welfare-expenditure reductions just because when welfare recipients spend welfare dollars, those dollars create some employment while in-kind benefits do not. One wouldn’t expect that free-market advocates would prefer a welfare benefit form that takes welfare beneficiaries out of the free market in the ways outlined before. Radical free-marketeers often find in-kind benefits attractive on the view that in-kind benefits are socially stigmatizing and, thus, make welfare unattractive. Still there are those who seriously advocate for in-kind benefits. Alva Myrdal, the 1983 Nobel Prize winner in economics, is an example. Most of the arguments discussed before can be read in greater detail in her work.10 However, Myrdal makes two other points we have not covered previously and are worth noting because they concern cogent arguments about their limitations. The first is that the issue of consumer choice is not very relevant when it comes to benefits targeted primarily toward children; children seldom exercise much consumer choice in poor families. The second is that in-kind benefits cannot be seriously preferred where family income is not adequate in the first place. In the last analysis, Myrdal comes out for restricting in-kind benefits to secondary needs, nonbasic food, shelter, and clothing. With that view, then, it would seem that the kinds of benefits Myrdal really advocates as appropriate for in-kind forms are items such as medical care, education, perhaps clothing, and surely expert services. The issue of substitutability of goods, also important to Myrdal, refers to the possibility that a public policy or program the intent of which is to increase food purchases, for example, may not do so because more food is not purchased. Instead, the family uses food stamps to purchase the same amount of food they would have bought ordinarily; the money released by the availability of food stamps can then be used to buy other commodities of choice; the net gain, then, is not necessarily in food items. For example, the socially conforming family may use the extra purchasing power to buy books or more vegetables for the children. The less socially conforming may use it to buy illegal drugs, clothes, or a good time. Substitutability is an important idea because it shows how the inkind benefit, when it concerns items that are vitally necessary for survival, may not always be an effective way of controlling the consumption pattern, amount, or kind of benefit received. The same argument might be made with respect to the provision of vouchers for medical care, physician prescriptions, and credit for child care or work clothing, for example. Substitutability is probably a criterion that has wide relevance to the evaluation of the merit of benefit forms, whatever those benefit forms might be. Consumer sovereignty is a virtue because it works against coerciveness and intrusiveness of government in the lives and private affairs of citizen-recipients of public benefits. Coerciveness and intrusiveness into private lives should be conceded as an important criteria for evaluating benefit and service types. It is important for readers to remember that intrusiveness into private affairs can violate a citizen’s right to privacy—which itself derives from constitutional provisions. Being a recipient of public benefits doesn’t change that. Obviously, some types of benefits and services are worse offenders than others in this respect. The greatest potential for this offense is when beneficiaries are dependent on public benefits for their very physical survival. That would direct us to means-tested programs like TANF, food stamps, or SSI for the disabled or aged. Their means tests must be repeated at intervals in order for the program administrators to carry out their responsibility to see that beneficiaries are still actually eligible: for example, beneficiaries may be living a shared life with a household member who is working and earning but not be reporting it as household income. Notice that reporting it requires revelation of the beneficiaries’ personal relationships, where that would ordinarily be considered “private affairs” were the person not a welfare beneficiary. One of the reasons means tests are objectionable is that they cannot easily avoid this kind of intrusiveness. But notice in contrast programs like Social Security Retirement and Disability, which are usually means tested but only at the level of individuals, not households. No need there to be concerned about who else is sharing a household, a bed, or an income as in TANF or food stamps. AFDC, in particular, had a history of notorious intrusiveness. The best example is the public welfare staff/county prosecutor “night-riders” in Newburgh, New York, who routinely stationed themselves outside recipients’ dwellings after dark to see who came and went. It was a county-administered program at that time and the local policy concerned what was called the “man-in-the-house” rule: Any recipient who had a “man-inthe- house” (anytime after dark presumably) lost her benefits (illegally as it turned out). The point is that the eligibility rule has to do with who shares a household income, not with who sleeps together. Besides being a violation of citizens’ privacy rights, knowing that there was a “man in the house” doesn’t necessarily tell you anything about household income sharing, though recipients were disentitled just on that basis. The reader shouldn’t conclude that this is an argument against administrative rules; rather, it is an argument about how such rules should be applied with due respect for their legality. And it is advice to practitioners to be alert to abuses of that kind. Of course, the reader must realize that there are social programs whose very nature it is to intrude into private affairs, the obvious example being families whose children are being severely physically abused. Notice that the issue there is social control but of a kind that is legally sanctioned. Although that cannot justify just any kind of intrusion or coercion, it is an important distinction because when the intrusion has occurred by court order, it also means there is a way of remedying abuses through the court system and the legally required defense attorney. In contrast, administrative, extrajudicial coercion, and privacy intrusions occur buried in organizational privacy, without clear and ready remedies. Criteria for Evaluating the Fit of the Benefit/Service Type to the Social Problem Analysis Whatever the type of benefit, the basic question is whether it fits the social problem analysis, that is, fits compatibly with the definition of the problem. One way to approach this question of fit is to look at what the problem definition implies as the most prominent needs of the people who have the problem and ask whether the benefit the program delivers is relevant to any of them. If it is not, then the benefits are clearly off target and irrelevant to the social problem. They may even be desirable yet not a relevant benefit. Think of an after-school recreational program for children who are disruptive in classrooms. As desirable as this recreational program might be (perhaps it provides afterschool hours supervision for working parents when no adult is at home), if the program cannot make a case for some linkage with classroom behavior, then the program fails the fitness test. Notice that you might create a fit by a design for the recreational program that tailors itself to outcomes that are relevant to decreasing disruptive classroom behavior in some way. That is, of course, exactly the point: If the tailoring is strong, the program activities would likely be much more specific than just simply “recreational”— recall that the definition of recreation is “doing what you want, when you want.” The policy and program analyst should also look at the social problem theory and, in particular, its derivative—the social program theory. Note that program theory will specify some set of factors as a preferred outcome and describe how to set in motion a chain of events (or processes) to obtain just that outcome. The benefit/service type must be one of those events, causal antecedents likely to set this chain of events in motion. And there must be a plausible and logical argument as to why this benefit would be expected to have that result. That is what “fit of the benefit/service type” is all about. If that argument is not there, then there is no fit. There are some historical examples of bad consequences as a result of this lack of fit with the social problem analysis. In the 1970s, federal payments to states for foster home care were raised to 100 percent of state costs. There was an entirely innocent motive on the part of the U.S. Congress: States complained that they didn’t have funds to provide all the foster home care they needed to protect children from abuse and neglect. The legislation and the federal dollars appropriated made cost-free foster home care available to states. The benefit/service was a bad fit to the social problem of concern. The social problem wasn’t just the lack of foster home care—couldn’t be, since foster home care is never more than a means to some other end. In this case the “bad thing” that identifies the social problem was the neglect and abuse of children. Clearly, foster care protects children from immediate harm, but it doesn’t by itself change anything for next year or the year after that. As it happened, within the year, there were massive increases in the numbers of children removed from their homes and placed in public foster home care facilities. It would appear that cost-free foster care created large-scale overuse of this service.11 Not only that, many believe that cost-free foster home care funding was a major factor in children continuing in long-term foster care, “stuck” there for interminable periods. That phenomenon came to be called foster care drift, a phrase referring to children who neither return to their own homes nor are placed in permanent adoption. Foster care drift has bad consequences: Many children in foster care for long periods literally lose their place in families since families are living, organic things, changing with age/stage development of their members and adapting to the surrounding social and economic circumstances. The program of cost-free foster home care actually created a whole new social problem—foster care drift—an outcome that should be kept in mind when initiating new social programs. It is a great temptation for legislators, policy makers, and social practitioners alike to believe that a personal social service can (somehow) substitute for a necessary material need. It is almost always a mistake to believe that job training can provide a livelihood when the economy itself is not at that moment providing jobs for that particular person, to believe that various “counselings” can help a mother find a way to deal with an aggressive child acting out when she has to work two jobs and twelve hours a day in order to feed and provide shelter for her family. That is not to say that personal social services are never effective, only to say that they can only be effective for people who are at least minimally fed, housed, and clothed. It would seem to be obvious, but the history of the provision of social welfare benefits in the United States shows that important and very costly mistakes can be made in that regard. In legislating the 1962 amendments to the Social Security Act, social workers and other human service proponents convinced Congress that personal social services should be institutionalized as a major strategy against the problem of poverty. It wasn’t exactly a new idea—the emergency relief legislation of the depression era in the early 1930s had provided for special units of social workers to be available for difficult cases on an individualistic basis to those who were poor and/or had personal problems. Prior to that time, private charitable agencies as far back as the Charity Organization Societies of the mid-1800s included social workers as part of a system to tailor cash assistance to individual characteristics and to plan and implement service and benefit delivery. In its 1962 amendments, the Social Security Act provided the first federal statutory instance in the United States for the general provision of personal social services to families on relief. According to Morris, at the same time Congress increased the federal dollar match (to state funds) to 75 percent for this purpose as if to underscore their commitment to the “rehabilitation” of the poor via personal social services.12 This effectively put into practice the idea that services were an inextricable part, if not the major strategy, for a solution to the problem of poverty. The social problem viewpoint was that the cause of poverty was an interaction between lack of material resources and some personal attribute (attitude, cultural approach to work) and was amenable to change by a service strategy: family, group, and individual counseling; job and parent training; referral agencies; and service coordination, which avoided duplication of services. Indeed, the very name of the federal agency responsible for basic income maintenance programs (e.g., AFDC) was changed to the Family Service Administration.13 Congress was convinced to increase appropriations by hundreds of millions of dollars for services and the training of personal social service workers on behalf of those ideas. Federal expenditures for personal social services increased from $194 million in 1963 to a billion and a half dollars by 1972.14 Not surprisingly, services weren’t successful in reducing poverty. The money was directed at what was perceived to be the shortcomings of individuals rather than the shortcomings of the economic system. The mistake was to think that these services could somehow substitute for the problems of an economy that created most of the poverty in the first place. Here is an instance of a social problem analysis shown by subsequent events to be dead wrong and it reveals, on the one hand, the limitations of the criterion of fit with the social problem analysis. On the other hand, it shows how important it is to remake the social problem analysis when that is the case. An obvious alternative hypothesis is that the social problem is caused by external and environmental, not only personal, attributes. The best training, education, and job referral systems cannot make up for a bad job market or low earnings combined with (for example) high child care and transportation costs. The English historian Barbara Wootten puts it this way: “It is always easier to put up a clinic than tear down a slum . . . we prefer today to analyze the infected individual rather than . . . the infection from the environment.”15 But it isn’t that difficult to take all this history into account and then recreate a social problem analysis based on a broader economic and social system viewpoint. If one did, the implication would be reasonably clear that the most obvious cause of poverty is lack of money and the most obvious remedy is via material benefits: cash and/or adequately paid, full-time jobs. History shows that such jobs can be increased by a wide range of governmental public policies including (but not limited to) the following: “Trickle-down” policies that give tax cuts to employers and investors to invest in new industrial plants and equipment to create new jobs (very slow in producing effects and with sizable benefits to the wealthy) Governmental policies to place new orders to private business for military equipment, roads, bridges, and hydroelectric power dams in employment-distressed regions (quicker effects for the middle class but expensive and controversially cost-effective for the poor) Projects directly administered by the federal and state government to construct public buildings, roads and bridges, and national park facilities like the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) during the 1930s’ depression (quickest for the poor but controversially cost-effective for the product produced and politically very controversial in the United States, though not in Europe) And, of course, there is an incident in world history that, although not so intended, dramatically demonstrates the effectiveness of public policy remedying poverty by hard benefits like money or food or the access to opportunity for the ordinary jobs that produce income. In the 1800s, Great Britain, stubbornly ignoring the relationship among crime, poverty, and general economic distress, decided to solve its problem of an immense overload of civil prisoners by shipping them off to their colonies in Australia and New Zealand—out of sight, out of mind, out of trouble. No one believed that these colonial societies would be successful. As hindsight shows, not only did that happen but successful modern social and economic structures were built on a populace of convicted criminals. The desire to work and the ability to compete and survive are shown by this example not to have been lacking in the convict society. The economic and social development of these countries is the premier example of the importance of having available sufficient economic opportunity created by public social utilities (when the private sector cannot provide it). Given abundant land made available by explicit public policy in the form of subsidies, land grants, transportation, and settlement, a society made up of convicted criminals created a hardworking, ordered, socially conforming, and economically productive life.16 The mistake in the British approach to its social problem of crime was an ideological error in the British understanding of the problem of criminal behavior— the problem was thought to be totally about moral lack, not of economic opportunity. However, when given a labor market that provided opportunity, these early Australian and New Zealand settlers took advantage of its benefits and turned them to their own self-interest. Personal social services were not required. One might say that the lesson to be learned from this history is that it takes very dramatic, hard-benefit–oriented mechanisms (jobs and money) to produce a major impact on serious national poverty and crime and no personal social service strategy—training, rehabilitation, job search sophistication, however well financed or conceived—can substitute for it. Will there be some who don’t work however many jobs are available? Of course there will be, because no social program or policy is ever perfect. Criteria for Evaluating the Merit of Benefit Forms: Adequacy, Equity, and Efficiency We have already considered adequacy and efficiency in the earlier section on the fit of the benefit form with the social problem analysis. But there are moments when equity has a special relevance to the choice of benefit type. Educational vouchers, it turns out, provide a good example. Here is the argument. Suppose that instead of providing neighborhood schools for children, a school district decides to issue educational vouchers. When presented to a private school, the school district will guarantee payment of a child’s tuition costs from tax funds. Commonly, educational vouchers pay tuition costs up to the dollar per pupil costs in the local school district—some places that could amount to, say, $5,000 per year per child, not an insignificant sum of money. Those who object to this form of educational benefit argue that for most private schools, the tuition is always more than the voucher will provide, so that only those families with greater-than-average income who can make up the difference can take advantage of them. And, if a significant number of parents choose vouchers and private schools, the number of citizens who support public schools will not only diminish but also actively oppose their improvement since they are paying double educational costs. Indeed, with less pupils, per pupil costs rise, and at some point, these cost increases mean less will be provided for public school students. Some voucher opponents argue that ultimately vouchers mean that public schools are only for those of less-than-average income and will not have enough support from taxpayers to avoid serious deterioration in teaching staff and curriculum offerings, not to mention buildings and facilities. That is, of course, a consequence that is seriously inequitable because it falls primarily on low-income citizens who are least able to accommodate to it. The issue here is not that vouchers are inevitably inequitable, only that where it creates inequities, the voucher policy design must have features that eliminate it. Vouchers can have some important positive qualities, particularly the increase in what we have earlier called consumer sovereignty—parents can exercise free choice over what kind of school their children attend. The trade-off here is between that free choice and the inequity in the form of lower-class schooling it visits on children who remain in public schools. There are a number of ways of reducing the inequity. Most of the solutions turn on different ways of equalizing educational costs so that all parents have the opportunity to send their children to private schools: for example, private schools could be prevented from charging more than the local district per pupil costs, the school district could subsidize private schools at a higher rate than their own per pupil cost, and so on. Note that all the previous discussion avoids other important issues in public payments to private schools, notably the issue of church–state separation. Summary Nine types of benefits and services were presented for use in the analysis of social programs and policy provisions: cash, material goods and commodities, expert services, positive discrimination, credits/vouchers, market/wholesale subsidies, government loan guarantees, protective regulation, and power over decisions. Criteria for evaluating the merit of benefits and services were presented: fit with the social problem analysis, fit with the program design, potential for stigmatization, target efficiency, cost-effectiveness, consumer sovereignty, substitutability, and trade-offs, among others. Interrelationships between benefits and benefit packages accruing from more than a single program will be the sole concern in a subsequent chapter of this book. Resouces Chaper 5 of Social Policy and Social Programs Write a 300 word summary evaluating the benefit types and services of the same agency or organization you used in pervious assignments The information that is stated above is the pages 96-107 from the text book that you will need to complete this assignment Use the criteria for evaluating benefits and services , located in the above information Please no Plagirism- Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Multiple and interrelated benefits it would be a mistake to leave Just from $13/Page Order Essay
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Statistics Sum Solution (***** 100% Correct answer Calculation all sum *****) Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Statistics sum solution (***** 100% correct answer calculation all Just from $13/Page Order Essay 1) If light bulbs have lives that are normally distributed with a mean of 2500 hours and a standard deviation of 500 hours, what percentage of light bulbs have a life less than 2500 hours? 2)The lifetimes of light bulbs of a particular type are normally distributed with a mean of 370 hours and a standard deviation of 5 hours. What percentage of bulbs has lifetimes that lie within 1 standard deviation of the mean on either side? 3) The amount of Jen’s monthly phone bill is normally distributed with a mean of $60 and a standard deviation of $12. Fill in the blanks: 68% of her phone bills are between $______________ and $______________. 4)The amount of Jen’s monthly phone bill is normally distributed with a mean of $50 and a standard deviation of $10. Find the 25th percentile. 5) The diameters of bolts produced by a certain machine are normally distributed with a mean of 0.30 inches and a standard deviation of 0.01 inches. What percentage of bolts will have a diameter greater than 0.32 inches? 6)The annual precipitation amounts in a certain mountain range are normally distributed with a mean of 88 inches, and a standard deviation of 10 inches. What is the likelihood that the mean annual precipitation during 25 randomly picked years will be less than 90.8 inches? 7) A final exam in Statistics has a mean of 73 with a standard deviation of 7.73. Assume that a random sample of 24 students is selected and the mean test score of the sample is computed. What percentage of sample means are less than 70? 8) A mean score on a standardized test is 50 with a standard deviation of 10. Answer the following What scores fall between –1 and 1 standard deviation? What percent of all scores fall between –1 and 1 standard deviation? What score falls at 2 standard deviations? What percentage of scores falls between 1 and 2 standard deviations? Chapter Six: 1) For the following questions, would the following be considered “significant” if its probability is less than or equal to 0.05? Is it “significant” to get a 12 when a pair of dice is rolled? 2.Assume that a study of 500 randomly selected school bus routes showed that 480 arrived on time. Is it “significant” for a school bus to arrive late? 2) If you flip a coin three times, the possible outcomes are HHH, HHT, HTH, HTT, THH, THT, TTH, and TTT. What is the probability of getting at least one head? 3) A sample space consists of 64 separate events that are equally likely. What is the probability of each? 4) A bag contains 4 red marbles, 3 blue marbles, and 7 green marbles. If a marble is randomly selected from the bag, what is the probability that it is blue? 5) The data set represents the income levels of the members of a country club. Estimate the probability that a randomly selected member earns at least $98,000. 112,000 126,000 90,000 133,000 94,000 112,000 98,000 82,000 147,000 182,000 86,000 105,000 140,000 94,000 126,000 119,000 98,000 154,000 78,000 119,000 6) Suppose you have an extremely unfair coin: The probability of a head is ¼ and the probability of a tail is ¾. If you toss the coin 32 times, how many heads do you expect to see? 7) The following table is from the Social Security Actuarial Tables. For each age, it gives the probability of death within one year, the number of living out of an original 100,000 and the additional life expectancy for a person of that age. Determine the following using the table: To what age may a female of age 60 expected to live on the average? To what age is a male of age 70 expected to live on average? How many 60-year old females on average will be living at age 61? How many 70-year old males on average will be living at age 71?
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Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Nr631 week 8 ba | US Just from $13/Page Order Essay Due Wednesday by 11:59pm Points 100 Submitting a file upload NR631 W8 CGE Portfolio-Part 1 Guidelines and Rubric Purpose This assignment allows the student to assemble their CGE portfolio with the project management components and activities completed to this point. This assignment will be built upon at the conclusion of the CGE II course to create a complete portfolio. Course Outcomes This assignment enables the student to meet the following Course Outcomes (COs): CO 1: Apply leadership skills concepts of project management as a nurse executive in an organizational setting to develop, implement and evaluate successful project plans. (PO 4,5) CO 2: Using current knowledge, standards of practice, and research from evidence-based literature, synthesize a foundation for the nurse executive role. (PO 3,4) CO 3: Exemplify professional values and scholarship that support the role of a student in a practicum setting. (PO 4) CO 4: Contribute to the body of nursing leadership and management knowledge through research, planning, evaluation and dissemination of findings. (PO 4) CO 5: Apply professional values characteristic of the competent and caring nurse executive that promote holistic care principles and an appreciation of cultural humility ( PO1, PO3, PO5) CO 6: Apply evidence-based fiscal principles that contribute to the creation of a caring environment characterized by high quality, safe, patient-centered care (PO1, PO2) Requirements Complete the portfolio. Elements of Portfolio The student is responsible for the development of a CGE portfolio that includes the following elements in the following order. Project PICOT question Abstract summary of project topic (approximately 500 words) Literature review (may be copied and pasted from the Week 3 assignment with revisions as necessary) Reflection on Course Outcome (CO) achievement List each CO as a heading in proper APA format. For each CO, provide a reflective summary of how you feel you have progressed in meeting this outcome through the resources and activities of NR631. Scholarly application sections of the following (in order) project management tools (may be copied and pasted from those assignments with revisions as necessary) Project Charter (Week 2) Project Scope (Week 2) Communication Plan (Week 4) Deliverables and CSF (Week 5) Work Breakdown Structure (Week 6) Gantt Chart (Week 6) RACI (Week 7) Risk Register (Week 7) The following documents included as separate appendices in the following order Learning Agreement Signed (verified) by both student and mentor Reflective summary of progress through the end of CGE I of progress toward that goal Signed CGE activity log with a minimum of 72 hours Project Charter (Week 2) Project Scope (Week 2) Communication Plan (Week 4) Deliverables and CSF (Week 5) Work Breakdown Structure (Week 6) Gantt Chart (Week 6) RACI (Week 7) Risk Register (Week 7) Grammar, spelling, punctuation, references, and citations must be consistent with formal academic writing and APA format as expressed in the current edition of the APA manual. PREPARING THE PAPER All aspects of the portfolio must be completed. Ideas and information from professional sources must be cited correctly using the current edition of the APA manual. Grammar, spelling, punctuation, references, and citations must be consistent with formal academic writing.
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APA Assignment Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Apa assignment | English homework help Just from $13/Page Order Essay APA Reference Page 1. Type your assignment on one page. 2. The format should follow the rules of a reference page in APA style. 3. Use the Purdue Online Writing Lab APA website: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ Put the following information into a reference page in APA style. _____________________________ The famous German psychologist Erika Schmidt collaborated with Fred Peter Zimmermann to publish their influential 1985 book, The Psychological Experience of Immigration. It was published in New York by Routledge. Daniel Barton, Jr., wrote the original edition of An Introduction to Sociology in 1989. It was required reading in his course at Oxford University in Oxford, England, where he also lived. The author published this first edition himself. It was subsequently revived and revised a number of times with the latest edition in 2014 and published by Cambridge University Press, in Cambridge, England. It was long thought that science developed in a steady cumulative state. However, Ken S. Jung argued that science reached tipping points that cascaded into new ways of thinking. This is his doctoral dissertation (No. 563482), The Origin of Scientific Revolutions finished in 1970 at the University of Chicago Press which can be located at ProQuest Dissertations
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Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on careers in hhs | Social Science homework help Just from $13/Page Order Essay Ashford 5: – Week 4 – Discussion 1 Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Reference the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated. Careers in HHS The great variety of careers and occupations within the field of HHS is growing every year. A review of some of the data bases in the text will provide opportunities to search and identify many occupational areas within different governmental departments and programs. Searching, for example, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website will result in finding many careers such as: social workers, preschool programs, criminal justice, counseling, gerontology, and drug and alcohol treatment. After selecting two different websites related to HHS, identify two career areas in the HHS field and do the following: Record the websites or data bases, listing the careers or occupations given. Prepare a brief description of the career / occupation. Respond thoughtfully to the following two questions: Selecting one of the career occupation areas, complete the following sentence: I believe working in the HHS career area would be right for me because… In this career area the kind of work I would be doing would be… (complete the sentence) Respond to at least two of your classmates’ postings.

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