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Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Assignment 8 | English homework help Just from $13/Page Order Essay EN360 Technical Communication Directions: Be sure to save an electronic copy of your answer before submitting it to Ashworth College for grading. Unless otherwise stated, answer in complete sentences, and be sure to use correct English, spelling and grammar. Sources must be cited in APA format. Your response should be four (4) double-spaced pages; refer to the “Assignment Format” page located on the Course Home page for specific format requirements. Part A: Email/Text Problems What are some of the problems that you have experienced when writing or receiving poorly, perhaps hastily, written emails/texts? Describe at least five (5) types of issues. Part B: Writing a Process Description Select a specialized process that you understand well and that has several distinct steps. Using the process description discussed in Chapter 19 of your textbook as a model, write a one page description of this process. Part C: Difficult to Follow Instructions Find a short set of instructions or some other technical document from work or the Internet that is hard to follow. Replicate or download those instructions at the top of a one-page analysis. Assume that you are the Associate Director of Communications for the company that produced this document and that you are doing a final review before the document is released. Using the “Checklist for Instructions and Procedures” on the following page (also found in Chapter 20 of your textbook), identify what, specifically, makes the document difficult to use, providing a specific reference for each problem area. Part D: Ted Talk Lecture Evaluation Watch a 10-20 minute TED Talks lecture online (www.ted.com). There are 27 evaluation criteria on the “Checklist for Oral Presentations” below (also found in Chapter 24 of your textbook). Select 10 among them that you believe are most salient for this speaker. Identify strong areas and areas that could have been better. Provide an example for each. (These are skilled speakers, so you’ll probably be highlighting more strengths than weaknesses.) Grading Rubric Please refer to the rubric below for the grading criteria for this assignment.
Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Lib 332 week 2 assignment Just from $13/Page Order Essay Scientific
Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Lib 332 week 2 assignment Just from $13/Page Order Essay Scientific Revolution and Popular Memory The Scientific Revolution holds a powerful place in the popular understanding of science. It is taught in high school physics and history classes, is the subject of entire courses at the college level, and its meaning is still debated by scholars. However, the most popular narrative of the Scientific Revolution is heavily tilted toward Nicholas Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, and Sir Isaac Newton, with other scientific pioneers often conspicuously absent except for in classes at the college level. First, pick one of the three mentioned above and one of the following or any other scientist discussed in this week’s readings. Rene Descartes Robert Boyle Johannes Kepler Tycho Brahe Paracelsus William Harvey Gottfried Leibnitz Robert Hooke Giovanni Cassini Edmund Halley Then, building off of your first response to this week’s “Scientific Revolution” discussion, write an essay that evaluates the scientific accomplishments of the two scientists and postulate why one is better known in the general public than the other. What does this tell us about how popular memories and narratives are created? The paper must be at least three pages in length (excluding the title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style. You must use at least two scholarly sources, one of which can be found in the Ashford Online Library, and the textbook to support your points. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page. For information regarding APA, including samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar. Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.
Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Supporting diversity through 21st century teaching and learning (3 Just from
Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Supporting diversity through 21st century teaching and learning (3 Just from $13/Page Order Essay Supporting Diversity through 21st Century Teaching and Learning This assignment re- introduces you to the framework of 21st century skills that you will consider each week as you work to redesign prior coursework for your ePortfolio. Note that a similar format is followed for each of the assignments in this course. You will upload this assignment to the course for evaluation and to your ePortfolio. (i can upload it myself, once you done) Specifically, after reviewing the Framework for 21st Century Learning http://www.battelleforkids.org/networks/p21 , you will redesign or modify a prior assignment from one of your courses in the master’s program that represents your mastery of your programs learning outcomes (MAED or MASE). An assignment you may want to redesign could be in the form of a lesson plan or teaching unit you previously created for a course. Your redesign of the assignment must show a representation of 21st century learning through incorporation of student outcomes and support systems, which are defined as follows: Student Outcomes: Learning and Innovations Skills (critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity), Core Subjects 3Rs and 21st Century Themes, Information, Media, and Technology Skills, Life and Career Skills. Support Systems: Standards and assessments, curriculum and instruction, professional development, learning environments. When selecting an assignment to redesign, think about how the assignment should consider the diverse strengths, differences, cultures, and communities of students while offering a safe, collaborative, engaging, and inclusive learning environment. If you do not have previous work to use for this assignment, please contact your instructor for guidelines on how to proceed. As needed, refer to your program learning outcomes (PLOs) list (MAED, or MASE). NOTE* Before you select the PLO’s you will highlight in this assignment, be sure to read the final assignment for this course to ensure that you will cover each of your programs PLOs adequately. In your paper,Create your assignment to meet the content and written communication expectations noted below. Content Expectations The Redesign expectations explain what you are required to do with the prior coursework you choose to redesign. The Summary expectations are for the separate written portion of this assignment. Redesign – Outcomes (2 Points): Redesign of the lesson plan or teaching unit includes at least one component of the following 21st Century Student Outcomes: Core Subjects and 21st Century Themes, Learning and Innovation Skills, Information, Media, and Technology Skills, and Life and Career Skills. Redesign – Support Systems (1 Point): Redesign of the lesson plan or teaching unit includes at least one component of the following 21st Century Support Systems: 21st Century Standards, Assessment for 21st Century Skills, 21st Century Curriculum and Instruction, and 21st Century Learning Environments. Summary – Introduction/Conclusion (1 Point): A one paragraph introduction to the summary that concisely presents the scope and organization of the summary writing, as well as a one paragraph conclusion that recaps your summary’s key points. Summary – Modification (1 Point): For each revision, summarize in a paragraph how you revised the activity to address the components of 21st Century Student Outcomes and 21st Century Support systems. Explicitly state how your redesign assignment provides evidence of mastery of at least two PLO’s from your master’s program. . Summary – Reflection (1 Point): In one page, reflect on your experience with the redesign in terms of challenges you encountered and how you overcame those challenges, including any difficulties experienced in revising to address the components of 21st Century Student Outcomes and 21st Century Support systems. Written Communication Expectations Page Requirement (.5 points): Three pages, not including title and references pages. APA Formatting (.5 points): Use APA formatting consistently throughout the assignment. Syntax and Mechanics (.5 points): Display meticulous comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics such as spelling and grammar. Source Requirement (.5 points): Reference three scholarly sources in addition to the course textbook.
We normally think of the arts as very different from technologies in spite of the fact that art (with perhaps
We normally think of the arts as very different from technologies in spite of the fact that art (with perhaps a few exceptions) is practiced with the help of technology. This practice creates interdependence between technology and art. To what extent does art respond to, or is shaped by, the technology that enables it? To what extent have advanced and accessible digital technologies, such as websites, digital photography, and YouTube, changed the relationship between art and technology? Are these technologies reshaping our attitudes toward artists? Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Dq tech and art | Literature homework help Just from $13/Page Order Essay The focus for our first discussion topic is the relationship between technology and art. To start our discussion let’s address the following questions. To what extent does art respond to, or is shaped by, the technology that enables it? To what extent have advanced and accessible digital technologies, such as websites, digital photography, and YouTube, changed the relationship between art and technology. I believe it was Michel Foucault who said that once an artist has produced a work of art, then he or she has lost control of their work. In other words, it is not so much what the artist says about the work, rather it is how the social audience response to that work. For example, it appears that Johnny Depp’s recent film where he played the role of Tonto was not totally accepted by the audience. In other words, once a work of art has been produced, it takes on a life of its own (think here of alienation of labor or the process of commodification) independent of the producer.
You will individually write a 1-page paper consisting of a summary and brief International Marketing perspective-based analysis of a current
Writing Assignment Writing ServiceYou will individually write a 1-page paper consisting of a summary and brief International Marketing perspective-based analysis of a current international business event. The event must be and must be from one of the following sources. Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on 1 page paper about a current international business event Just from $13/Page Order Essay Most of these periodicals allow access to some articles online for free and most are available through the FIU Library online database by going to library.fiu.edu and in the search box clicking “E-journals”. Then type in the periodical and click “search”. Then click on the link to the periodical in the library listing either browse the recent issues or enter search terms such as “international marketing” to narrow the search. ? Any news event . What topics are NOT appropriate? News about stock prices, selling/buying of company stock, trade deals, management issues, labor issues, buying and selling of companies, general political events that are not related to foreign business investment opportunities, or capital investments. And, of course, ANY MARKETING/BUSINESS NEWS THAT FOCUSES ON DOMESTIC IMPLICATIONS, NOT INTERNATIONAL TRADE IMPLICATIONS. If you are unsure about a current event you are considering, please email me to ask about it. : (a) Article title, author, publication date, and periodical name (b) A brief explanation of the International Marketing event the article reports. (50 words max) (c) A statement of at LEAST ONE international marketing concept ( the concept name) covered in our course that applies to understanding the issue, problem, and/or implications of the International Marketing event. (10 words max) (d) An explanation of the issue, problem, and/or implications of the International Marketing event from the perspective of the company’s international performance and International marketing strategy success. (75 words max) Example, suppose a student is analyzing Harley Davidson’s launch of an affordable, small-engine motorcycle line in Cuba: (d) A major issue with this marketing strategy is that Harley Motorcycles are known for their performance and their rebellious All-American brand image. However, the small engines likely undermine performance and doing business in a Communist nation could undermine the brand’s rebellious, freedom-centric American image. (e) Analysis of the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the International Marketing strategy (segmentation, targeting, positioning, branding, product, pricing, promotion, or distribution strategy) that is at the core of the International Marketing event the article reports. and the international marketing topic from our course that you state in part (c) in your analysis ( the concept name). (150 words max) For example: (e) The effectiveness of Harley Davidson’s can be understood from the perspective of a product and brand’s representation of cultural values. Cultural values are the standards and ideals that a society upholds and considers important. If Harley Davidson is to succeed with Cuban consumers, it would have to tone down or change its freedom-centric, rebellious brand message because these American cultural values conflict with the more collectivistic, authoritarian values that characterize Cuban culture. Furthermore, the size of the motorcycles and their engines is different from their traditional product offerings in the U.S. and Europe. Consumers in other parts of the world may encounter the weaker performance Harley motorcycles by visiting Cuba or through Cuban consumers’ social media communications. This could dilute the brand’s high performance brand image around the world. 1-inch margins, SINGLE-spaced 10- or 11-point Arial font. Label each section of your posting using the designated letters (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e). Proofread. Each and every spelling error, grammar error, and/or incorrect term usage after the fifth (5th) occurrence will incur a 1 point deduction from the total assignment score. *Feedback and grades will be posted within 1-2 weeks of your submission.
Hrm 319 week 2 learning team design an hris for riordan manufacturing
Week 2: Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Hrm 319 week 2 learning team design an hris for riordan manufacturing Just from $13/Page Order Essay Learning Team Design an HRIS for Riordan Manufacturing Resource: Riordan Manufacturing website Access the Riordan Manufacturing website from the link located in the Materials section of the student website. Scroll to Course Web Links, find the “Virtual Organizations” tab, then “Go To Businesse’s” and there you will find Rirodan Manuafcturing. Review the information provided on the website. Write a report to analyze the tactical and strategic functions of Riordan Manufacturing, a plastics manufacturer, and to design an HRIS for the company. Currently, the company is using an HRIS that was installed in 1992 and only provides limited functions. The company has decided to build a new HRIS to improve the HRM performance. They have contracted your team, an external HRIS consultant team, to design the system. Your report should include the following points: Briefly describe steps you will follow to design an HRIS for Riordan. Analyze the internal environment of Riordan Manufacturing to identify its tactical and strategic business functions. Describe in general the data inputs and outputs of the existing system and identify goals and objectives of the new system. What are the current information needs? What must the new system do? What changes are suggested for the new system? Describe the framework of the new HRIS. What modules will the new system have? What data go into each module? What reports will the new system have? How will the new HRIS be managed? What information will be included in each report? Choose one of the modules you have selected for your HRIS (i.e. applicant tracking, benefits, performance management, compensation, training and development, etc.) and identify possible vendors of the module and possible costs of the vendors. Format your report consistent with APA guidelines.
Discussion 1 Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on For professional research writer | Psychology homework help Just
Discussion 1 Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on For professional research writer | Psychology homework help Just from $13/Page Order Essay Main Elements: To get full credit on this section of the rubric you need illustrate each element with multiple citations. To really dive into this topic and be thorough, I requested you use at least 5 citations and references.Inquiry and Analysis: For this section, you need an in-depth analysis. To explain any topic with depth, you need more research for an analysis. Use a minimum of 5 references from scholarly authors to present in depth information. Use in text citations to show what information came from which source.Integration and Application: Our work in class is about studying and researching health topics. You need to show that you’ve researched the topics. Provide in text citations and references to show what from your paper has been researched. Explain what you’ve researched in your own words to show you are applying concepts you’re learning.Critical Thinking: For full credit here you need to thoroughly defend with evidence and examples. Research: You need “many” scholarly sources incorporated within your paper for full credit here. Use at least 5 or more so it is considered “many”. Writing (Mechanics/Citations): You need to use APA formatting which includes in text citations to show where you retrieved your information in your paper. A goal of Module Five is to educate students about methods that can be used to quit smoking and treat alcoholism. Please discuss whether you agree with the following statement: Tobacco use and alcohol abuse are more individual problems than societal issues, so the responsibility for smoking cessation or alcohol treatment belongs to the individual. Be sure to support your responses. I have attach a rubric to look at for the grading. Discussion 2 5-2 Short Paper: Cigarette Packaging Assignment Tobacco companies are required to include warning labels on cigarette packaging. It has been recommended that they illustrate the effects of cigarette smoking. These images are quite graphic; examples include diseased lungs and a man exhaling cigarette smoke through his neck by way of a tracheotomy hole. Respond to the following questions: 1. How do you feel about these regulations? 2. Will this type of packaging make a difference in the number of people who smoke? If not, can you think of other ways to encourage people to quit or prevent others from starting this habit? 3. Do you think these kinds of labels should be used to deter people from purchasing unhealthy foods? For instance, should soda labels have pictures of rotting teeth? For additional details, please refer to the Short Paper/Case Study Analysis Rubric document attach below Discussion 3 Your post should be at least 200–250 words in length and should extend the discussion of the group supported by your course materials and/or other appropriate resources. After you have submitted your initial post, review some of your classmates’ posts and respond to at least two of your classmates. Refer to your Discussion Board Rubric in your Syllabus for specific grading explanation. Reflecting on Cultural Responsiveness Cultural responsiveness is important to the work of early childhood professionals. Before you can be a leader and advocate of children, families, volunteers, and the community, you must first be aware of cultural responsiveness. Cultural responsiveness refers to “ways of thinking and behaving that enables members of one cultural, ethnic, or linguistic group to work effectively with members of another” (Lynch
FIN 534 Quiz 5 Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Fin 534 quiz 5 | Biology homework
FIN 534 Quiz 5 Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Fin 534 quiz 5 | Biology homework help Just from $13/Page Order Essay 1. If a typical U.S. company correctly estimates its WACC at a given point in time and then uses that same cost of capital to evaluate all projects for the next 10 years, then the firm will most likely Answer become riskier over time, but its intrinsic value will be maximized. become less risky over time, and this will maximize its intrinsic value.accept too many low-risk projects and too few high-risk projects.become more risky and also have an increasing WACC. Its intrinsic value will not be maximized.continue as before, because there is no reason to expect its risk position or value to change over time as a result of its use of a single cost of capital. 1. Which of the following statements is CORRECT? Answer When calculating the cost of debt, a company needs to adjust for taxes, because interest payments are deductible by the paying corporation. When calculating the cost of preferred stock, companies must adjust for taxes, because dividends paid on preferred stock are deductible by the paying corporation. Because of tax effects, an increase in the risk-free rate will have a greater effect on the after-tax cost of debt than on the cost of common stock as measured by the CAPM. If a company’s beta increases, this will increase the cost of equity used to calculate the WACC, but only if the company does not have enough retained earnings to take care of its equity financing and hence must issue new stock. Higher flotation costs reduce investors’ expected returns, and that leads to a reduction in a company’s WACC. 2 points Question 22 1. Which of the following statements is CORRECT? Answer In the WACC calculation, we must adjust the cost of preferred stock (the market yield) to reflect the fact that 70% of the dividends received by corporate investors are excluded from their taxable income. We should use historical measures of the component costs from prior financings that are still outstanding when estimating a company’s WACC for capital budgeting purposes. The cost of new equity (re) could possibly be lower than the cost of retained earnings (rs) if the market risk premium, risk-free rate, and the company’s beta all decline by a sufficiently large amount. A firm’s cost of retained earnings is the rate of return stockholders require on a firm’s common stock. The component cost of preferred stock is expressed as rp(1 – T), because preferred stock dividends are treated as fixed charges, similar to the treatment of interest on debt. 2 points Question 23 1. For a company whose target capital structure calls for 50% debt and 50% common equity, which of the following statements is CORRECT? Answer The interest rate used to calculate the WACC is the average after-tax cost of all the company’s outstanding debt as shown on its balance sheet. The WACC is calculated on a before-tax basis. The WACC exceeds the cost of equity. The cost of equity is always equal to or greater than the cost of debt. The cost of retained earnings typically exceeds the cost of new common stock. 2 points Question 24 1. Which of the following statements is CORRECT? Answer The WACC as used in capital budgeting is an estimate of a company’s before-tax cost of capital. The percentage flotation cost associated with issuing new common equity is typically smaller than the flotation cost for new debt. The WACC as used in capital budgeting is an estimate of the cost of all the capital a company has raised to acquire its assets. There is an “opportunity cost” associated with using retained earnings, hence they are not “free.” The WACC as used in capital budgeting would be simply the after-tax cost of debt if the firm plans to use only debt to finance its capital budget during the coming year. 1. Which of the following statements is CORRECT? Answer Although some methods used to estimate the cost of equity are subject to severe limitations, the CAPM is a simple, straightforward, and reliable model that consistently produces accurate cost of equity estimates. In particular, academics and corporate finance people generally agree that its key inputs–beta, the risk-free rate, and the market risk premium–can be estimated with little error. The DCF model is generally preferred by academics and financial executives over other models for estimating the cost of equity. This is because of the DCF model’s logical appeal and also because accurate estimates for its key inputs, the dividend yield and the growth rate, are easy to obtain. The bond-yield-plus-risk-premium approach to estimating the cost of equity may not always be accurate, but it has the advantage that its two key inputs, the firm’s own cost of debt and its risk premium, can be found by using standardized and objective procedures. Surveys indicate that the CAPM is the most widely used method for estimating the cost of equity. However, other methods are also used because CAPM estimates may be subject to error, and people like to use different methods as checks on one another. If all of the methods produce similar results, this increases the decision maker’s confidence in the estimated cost of equity. The DCF model is preferred by academics and finance practitioners over other cost of capital models because it correctly recognizes that the expected return on a stock consists of a dividend yield plus an expected capital gains yield. 2 points Question 29 1. For a typical firm, which of the following sequences is CORRECT? All rates are after taxes, and assume that the firm operates at its target capital structure. Answer rs > re > rd > WACC. re > rs > WACC > rd. WACC > re > rs > rd. rd > re > rs > WACC. WACC > rd > rs > re. 1. Deeble Construction Co.’s stock is trading at $30 a share. Call options on the company’s stock are also available, some with a strike price of $25 and some with a strike price of $35. Both options expire in three months. Which of the following best describes the value of these options? Answer The options with the $25 strike price will sell for $5. The options with the $25 strike price will sell for less than the options with the $35 strike price. The options with the $25 strike price have an exercise value greater than $5. The options with the $35 strike price have an exercise value greater than $0. If Deeble’s stock price rose by $5, the exercise value of the options with the $25 strike price would also increase by $5.
Assignment 1: lasa 2: the apportionment problem you are a census
Assignment 1: LASA 2: The Apportionment Problem Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Assignment 1: lasa 2: the apportionment problem you are a census Just from $13/Page Order Essay You are a census officer in a newly democratic nation and you have been charged with using the census data from the table below to determine how 100 congressional seats should be divided among the 10 states of the union. State Population 1 15475 2 35644 3 98756 4 88346 5 369 6 85663 7 43427 8 84311 9 54730 10 25467 Being a fan of United States history, you are familiar with the many methods of apportionment applied to this problem to achieve fair representation in the US House of Representatives. You decide that apportionment (chapter 11, sections 1-4 in your textbook) is the best approach to solving this problem, but need to compare several methods and then determine which is actually fair. Using the Hamilton method of apportionment, determine the number of seats each state should receive. Using the numbers you just calculated from applying the Hamilton method, determine the average constituency for each state. Explain your decision making process for allocating the remaining seats. Calculate the absolute and relative unfairness of this apportionment. Explain how changes in state boundaries or populations could affect the balance of representation in this congress. Provide an example using the results above. How and why could an Alabama Paradox occur? Explain how applying the Huntington-Hill apportionment method helps to avoid an Alabama Paradox. Based upon your experience in solving this problem, do you feel apportionment is the best way to achieve fair representation? Be sure to support your answer. Suggest another strategy that could be applied to achieve fair representation either using apportionment methods or a method of your choosing.
Please complete this assignment on the worksheet attached. Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Practice issue and
Please complete this assignment on the worksheet attached. Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on Practice issue and evidence summary guidelines Just from $13/Page Order Essay 1. Choose the ONE systematic review topic that is of most interest to you, or most relevant to your practice situation, from the required List of Approved Systematic Reviews (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. 2. Follow the grading criteria below to formulate your practice issue, which must be based on the topic of the systematic review you have selected. 3. Download the required Milestone 1 Practice Issue and Evidence Summary Worksheets (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (both worksheets appear in ONE form) to document the practice issue presented and approved by your instructor in the Week 2 Discussions. 4. You are required to complete the form using the productivity tools required by Chamberlain University, which is Microsoft Office Word 2013 (or later version), or Windows and Office 2011 (or later version) for MAC. You must save the file in the “.docx” format. Do NOT save as Word Pad. A later version of the productivity tool includes Office 365, which is available to Chamberlain students for FREE by downloading from the student portal at http://my.chamberlain.edu (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Click on the envelope at the top of the page. 5. Your practice issue will be the same for all three Milestone assignments in this course. 6. Please type your answers directly into the worksheet. Evidence Summary Worksheet Directions 1. Develop an evidence summary by following the grading criteria below. 2. Document this on the evidence summary portion of the worksheet. 3. You will use this worksheet to incorporate your evidence summary into your Week 4 Milestone 2 assignment. 4. Please type your answers directly into the worksheet. THE CHOSEN REVIEW SYSTEM Obstetrics/Delivery McFadden, A., Gavine, A., Renfrew, M. J., Wade, A., Buchanan, P., Taylor, J. L., … MacGillivray, S. (2017). Support for healthy breastfeeding mothers with healthy term babies. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD001141. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001141.pub5 Abstract Background There is extensive evidence of important health risks for infants and mothers related to not breastfeeding. In 2003, the World Health Organization recommended that infants be breastfed exclusively until six months of age, with breastfeeding continuing as an important part of the infant’s diet until at least two years of age. However, current breastfeeding rates in many countries do not reflect this recommendation. Objectives To describe forms of breastfeeding support which have been evaluated in controlled studies, the timing of the interventions and the settings in which they have been used. To examine the effectiveness of different modes of offering similar supportive interventions (for example, whether the support offered was proactive or reactive, face-to-face or over the telephone), and whether interventions containing both antenatal and postnatal elements were more effective than those taking place in natal period alone. To examine the effectiveness of different care providers and (where information was available) training. To explore the interaction between background breastfeeding rates and effectiveness of support. Search methods We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth’s Trials Register (29 February 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing extra support for healthy breastfeeding mothers of healthy term babies with usual maternity care. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Main results This updated review includes 100 trials involving more than 83,246 mother-infant pairs of which 73 studies contribute data (58 individually-randomised trials and 15 cluster-randomised trials). We considered that the overall risk of bias of trials included in the review was mixed. Of the 31 new studies included in this update, 21 provided data for one or more of the primary outcomes. The total number of mother-infant pairs in the 73 studies that contributed data to this review is 74,656 (this total was 56,451 in the previous version of this review). The 73 studies were conducted in 29 countries. Results of the analyses continue to confirm that all forms of extra support analyzed together showed a decrease in cessation of ‘any breastfeeding’, which includes partial and exclusive breastfeeding (average risk ratio (RR) for stopping any breastfeeding before six months 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 0.95; moderate-quality evidence, 51 studies) and for stopping breastfeeding before four to six weeks (average RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.95; moderate-quality evidence, 33 studies). All forms of extra support together also showed a decrease in cessation of exclusive breastfeeding at six months (average RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.92; moderate-quality evidence, 46 studies) and at four to six weeks (average RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.89; moderate quality, 32 studies). We downgraded evidence to moderate-quality due to very high heterogeneity. We investigated substantial heterogeneity for all four outcomes with subgroup analyses for the following covariates: who delivered care, type of support, timing of support, background breastfeeding rate and number of postnatal contacts. Covariates were not able to explain heterogeneity in general. Though the interaction tests were significant for some analyses, we advise caution in the interpretation of results for subgroups due to the heterogeneity. Extra support by both lay and professionals had a positive impact on breastfeeding outcomes. Several factors may have also improved results for women practising exclusive breastfeeding, such as interventions delivered with a face-to-face component, high background initiation rates of breastfeeding, lay support, and a specific schedule of four to eight contacts. However, because within-group heterogeneity remained high for all of these analyses, we advise caution when making specific conclusions based on subgroup results. We noted no evidence for subgroup differences for the any breastfeeding outcomes. Authors’ conclusions When breastfeeding support is offered to women, the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding is increased. Characteristics of effective support include: that it is offered as standard by trained personnel during antenatal or postnatal care, that it includes ongoing scheduled visits so that women can predict when support will be available, and that it is tailored to the setting and the needs of the population group. Support is likely to be more effective in settings with high initiation rates. Support may be offered either by professional or lay/peer supporters, or a combination of both. Strategies that rely mainly on face-to-face support are more likely to succeed with women practising exclusive breastfeeding.
Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on M5a1 his | History homework help Just from $13/Page Order Essay
Don’t use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on M5a1 his | History homework help Just from $13/Page Order Essay This activity addresses the following outcomes: Describe the economic and social changes brought about by World War II, in particular opportunities for women and minorities. (CO#1, CO#5/Gen. Ed.Outcome 4.2) Consider World War II as a “watershed” event in American foreign policy and the US’s role as a global superpower going into the Cold War (CO#3) For this essay, you will be writing a diary entry in early 1944. Assume that you are a well-read individual who is up-to-date on history and current events, including all of the primary sources assigned for this week’s reading. In your diary entry of approximately 3 pages (750 words), describe what changes you have observed in American society since US entry into the war. Pay particular attention to changes that affect particular groups of Americans, such as ethnic and religious minorities and women. Based on events that have taken place by early 1944, predict what you think will happen in within a 5 to 10 year time frame, in both the United States itself and the US’s position in the world. Your predictions only need to be what a reasonable person could have predicted in 1944. Although this assignment is written as a diary, this class assignment requires citations/footnotes and a reference list of sources used (including internet sources) in APA (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. or Chicago/Turabian (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. format. You must include at least one outside primary or secondary source beyond the course readings for this week. It can be either a scholarly secondary source from the Excelsior College Library (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. or a primary source from the Excelsior College Library (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. or from this list of pre-approved primary source websites in US History (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. You should NOT use non-scholarly websites such as Wikipedia. If you have questions about finding appropriate sources, please contact your instructor. For help on locating appropriate sources consult the following Library resources: Compose your work in a .doc or .docx file type using a word processor (such as Microsoft Word, etc.) and save it frequently to your computer. For those assignments that are not written essays and require uploading images or PowerPoint slides, please follow uploading guidelines provided by your instructor. Check your work and correct any spelling or grammatical errors. When you are ready to submit your work, click “Upload Submission.” Enter the submission title and then click on “Select a file to upload.” Browse your computer, and select your file. Click “Open” and verify the correct file name has appeared next to Submission File. Click on “Continue.” Confirm submission is correct and then click on “Accept Submission
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