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Simulated Biogeographical lab Research Paper Go to the online lab, Go-Lab (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., and review the directions/instructions.
Examine all the variables that you can change in the laboratory.
Decide which four variables you will work within your experiment.
Craft a proposal for how you will conduct the research using each of the four variables. Include how you expect each of the variables to interact with each other.
Formulate at least two hypotheses that include your variables and include the null-hypothesis for each. For example:
Hypothesis 1: As the number of sunshine increases, the truffle population will increase.” Null-hypothesis 1: “The change in the population of truffles is independent of the amount of sunshine.”
Research Proposal on Variables Considered In Conservation Biology Lab Experiment

The study will propose that as the temperature conditions changed for the warmer the mammal’s population were increased.
Null Hypothesis:
Each temperature conditions do not affect the population of mammal’s communities. Each mammal is indigenous to their environment (different mammals types will accommodate snow vs. Sunny tropical.
Hypothesis Two:
The research will claim that the closer the Island is to the mainland the population’s mortality rate decreased.
Null Hypothesis:
Because mammals are natural swimmers, I do believe the distance from the mainland does not affect the population’s mortality rate.
Literature Review
It is worth pointing out that island biogeography provides highly reliable data that supports the natural selection and
Charles Darwin theory of evolution. According to Kepski et al. (2017), insular biogeography is a selection of the ecosystem
that has been alienated from the whole ecosystem because of being confined by various ecosystems. The conservation area of biology has attained significant advancement in research studies aimed at preserving the species that exist within the island biogeography (Jones, 2019). The elevated levels and danger of extinction regularly reported on the Island, have enhanced the demand for a selection of the solution or interventions aimed at lowering the high levels of extinctions (Zanon, Streck, & Grassini, 2016). However, according to Kepski et al. (2017), for scholars in the conservational biology sector to succeed in their studies to find a perfect solution to the extinction problem, they must be in position to identify and consider some variables that are vital towards rise of the extinction levels among the species on the island. Thus, this research paper will seek to examine the four different interactive variables that affect the level of extinction of the island animals with a lot of attention being directed toward the mammals, the environment, size of the land, and an instance of the island from the mainland. An assessment of how these variables interact with each other to generate a combined effect on the rate of extinction among the mammal species on the island.
Simulated Biogeographical lab Research Paper
In a recent study by Kepski et al. (2017) claims the populations of mammals on the island along with other animal species such as birds and reptiles have a significant influence on their capacity to adapt to the current environmental conditions that are present in their current ecosystems.  The same idea is held by Zanon, Streck,& Grassini (2016) who defined mammals as one of the various species living in the subtropical terrains and the arctic tundra.  The migration of these species is an essential weapon for them to survive in different environments. The subtropical environment’s survival, death rates, and levels of immigration differ significantly as compared to that of the arctic tundra’s (Pinheiro et al., 2017). In this laboratory experiment, therefore, the level of subtropical environment provided favorable results for reproduction among the animal species. The main variables used in the analysis were environmental, the size of the island, the location from the mainland, and the taxonomy of all the mammals.
Simulated Biogeographical lab Research Paper
Variable One: Environment: Subtropical Vs. the arctic tundra Environment
In the subtropical areas of the island biogeography, the evolution of the Mammals has resulted in significant levels of diversity, both in form and habit (Zanon, Streck, & Grassini, 2016).  Living organisms in the area range from the small and weightless bat’s to the most massive creatures that have ever been seen on the earth, the blue wales. According to research
the blue whale has a length of about thirty meters, and weighs about one hundred and eighty metric tons (Pinheiro et al., 2017). Most of the class Mammalia that can swim, fly,glide or climb settles in the warm weather or areas of the island.
Zanon, Streck, & Grassini (2016), claims that over than five thousand species of mammals with 125 families and 29 orders. The rodents are the most common mammals that have a great diversity of living lineages. As opposed to Order Tubulidentata that has only one species, the aardvark, the rodents are numerous. The Orders Uranotheria and Perissodactyla had the most considerable diversity among the living things during the late phases of the Paleogene and the Neogene as compared to their numbers in the modern world.

Researchers claim that the greatest diversity in the world today is present in the continental tropical areas even though the members of the class Mammalia reside either on or in water bodies adjacent to most landmasses (Fattorini et al., 2018).
Simulated Biogeographical lab Research Paper
Mammals can be located on several oceanic islands, but not exclusively inhabited by the bats. The most significant regional faunas can be identified which was caused by evolution in the comparative alienation of different mammals that was observed in these areas. The separation of South America from North America was done sixty-five million years ago (Kepski et al.,
2017). The mammals that had inhabited South America before the break between the continents island-hopped after the break evolved sovereign from the close areas of North America. Studies done by Jones (2019) suggest that some of the mammals became extinct because of the increased competition with highly advanced demographics, but those in the South American continent
thrived with some radiating to the point that they had successfully competed with the rivals from other areas. On the other hand, Australia offered a parallel situation of early separation as well as adaptive radiation of mammals even though it differed from other alienations because it was not connected to any land masses. The placental mammals that had inhabited Australia such as the rodent and bats did so by island-hopping long after the other mammals had been wiped out by the dangerous radiation on the area.
Arctic Tundra
Research done by Fattorini et al. (2018) claims that small mammals inhabiting the Arctic Tundra showed high reproduction
levels as compared to other classes. For instance, the Lemmings are believed to have a population peak after three to five
years in some areas as they are always active in winter where they reside under snow. During this moment these mammals feed
on the roots of crops, and they can reproduce even under a thin layer of snow (Fattorini et al., 2018). As the population of
the lemming’s increases, most of the plants are eaten resulting in high accumulation of their waste that in turn create large volumes of manure that stimulates plant growth as they add more nutrients and nitrogen into the soil.
The numbers of mammalian species in the Arctic Tundra are limited because of the extreme environmental conditions. Studies by
Padian (2018) have shown that the population of animals that feed on lemmings, such as the foxes, and snowy owls, fall and
rise is dependent on the growth of the lemmings. To meet their needs, the snowy owls are known to migrate to the coniferous
forest regions when the lemming population is low and cannot sustain them. On the other hand, the population of the foxes regularly drops as they entirely rely on the lemmings for survival (Kepski et al., 2017). However, as the number of Lemmings rises, the vegetation cover reduces, and they are forced to shift to less populated parts of the continent.
The reindeer are the dominant herbivores in the arctic tundra regions, Eurasia and North America. The musk ox is also another animal which is considerably large in the Greenland areas and some part of the Canadian Arctic Island. These animals are categorized as significant because of the harsh external environment in which they live. They have a good survival habit that makes them attain such larger body size despite all the harsh condition within the habitat. The large body of these animals gives them the advantage of not losing their internal body heat to the external environment. They have a large surface area to volume ratio which is the crucial factor for their survival. The musk oxen have thick coat covering it thus can survive the cold climatic condition within their habitat. The sharp hooves and antlers in reindeers allow them to move in snow freely without getting stuck in it thus a survival tactic.
Predation also is a critical factor for survival in an ecosystem. Some predators are seasonal depending on the plenty of their pray, but there are some which predate in their immediate environment. Polar bears can survive in the tundra as well as
in wet areas. The polar bear move according to the season. During winter, they live in the ice floes in search of the seals and other animals which come around to breed.
On the other hand, Brown bears hunt on fish and other sizeable mammals for meals. In this ecosystem, there is an excellent dependence of the animal living in the area. The foxes and wolves depend on the leftovers which the bears leave behind after feeding on their prey. In the summer season, wolves and the foxes mostly live on land where they feed on the birds and raise their families.
Simulated Biogeographical lab Research Paper
The animals which are located in the tundra region mostly have a white coat which is also a survival measure. The foxes, ptarmigans, and the arctic hares display this characteristic. These animals can camouflage depending on the season thus can survive both winter and summer. The white coloration during snow helps both predators and also prey. The predators can move without being easily detected by their prey and also preys hide in the snow thus not exposed. The polar bears have white coat
due to the specialized transparent hair that can reflect visible light.
Variable Three: Island Size
Recent surveys show that the evolution of little forms of animals such as elephants is as a result of lack of competition for food and the absence of predators (Padian, 2018). The large mammals on islands evolve to very small as compared on their counterparts inhabiting vast continental land masses. For herbivores, they do not need their body for them to survive in the area.  A carnivore on the islands, miniaturizations happens less dramatically and believes that it is mainly caused by the size and prevalence of the prey.
Simulated Biogeographical lab Research Paper Variable Four: Distance from the Mainland
The distance from the mainland also plays a role. The further away from central, the temperature was critical. The environment becomes import because of swimming, from primary to the island for food. If the climate is in the arctic tundra the crossing to the mainland is much more comfortable (Padian, 2018). The type of mammals like swimmers, crawlers and many more also play a role when sustaining life on an Island