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25 Nov
2019

L1 Transfer or L2 Development… | Good Grade Guarantee!

L1 Transfer or L2 Development Theory/Theorist Table
L1 Transfer or L2 Development Theory/Theorist Table So you’ve decided whether the “error” you’ve selected to analyze is based on L1 transfer or L2 development. Use the list of theories below to help you figure out which theorist/theory makes more sense in helping you to explain why the ELL student made the error. 
If you’ve determined your “error” to be an L1 transfer, read more about the following topics:
Theory
Description
References in Theory/Theorist Zipped Folder in Canvas to Use
Selinker’s Interlanguage theory
In second language acquisition, it is expected that second language learners will produce an interim language between their first and second language which is referred to interlanguage. This interlanguage system causes second language learners to produce errors that may be attributed to interference from the mother tongue OR difficulties of learning complex English structures.
– All articles in the “Interlanguage” folder– Adamson et al (1997) – Sources of Variation in Interlanguage– Cheatham (2010) – Young ELLs’ Interlanguage– Selinker (1988) – Papers in Interlanguage– Selinker et al (1975) – Interlanguage Hypothesis Extended to Children
L1 transfer theories & Overgeneralization
Learners apply the grammatical knowledge about how linguistic forms work from their first language and try to apply them to the second language.
– “First Language Influence” folder: Pg. 54-56 in Bialystok (1991), Chapter 3; Pg. 52-54 by Gass in Luria (2006), Chapter 3–  Pg 93- 98, in Coelho (2004), Chapter 12. (available online)– Isurin (2005) – Cross Linguistic Transfer in Word Order– Benson (2002) – Transfer & Crosslinguistic Influence– Solis (1986) – Language Transfer in Acquisition of Negation– Pg.  158 in Coelho (2004), Chapter 8; Pg. 143 in Coelho (2004), Chapter 8; Pg. 158 in Coelho (2004), Chapter 8; Pg. 99 in Coelho (2004), Chapter 12. (available online)– Pg. 144 in Coelho (2004), Chapter 8. (available online)– Pg. 73 in Coelho (2004), Chapter 4. (available online)
Natural Translation
When translating, language learners reformulate a message from their first language into another language, usually carrying over grammatical features from the L1 that do not reflect the most native-like grammatical patterns in the L2.
– All articles in the “Natural Translation” folder
Codeswitching
When language learners alternate languages within an utterance to capture new ways of meaning or to communicate more effectively, such as to cover gaps in the speaker’s vocabulary knowledge in the L2.
– All articles in the “Codeswitching” folder– Pg. 98, in Coelho (2004), Chapter 12. (available online)
Cummins’ Common Underlying proficiency
Knowledge and literacy skills (as well as grammatical knowledge) in a student’s native language will transfer to his or her learning of a target language.
– First Language Influence” folder: Pg. 37-38 in Baker (2000), Section B
If you’ve determined your “error” to be based on normal L2 development, read more about the following topics:
Theory
Description
References in Theory/Theorist Zipped Folder in Canvas to Use
McLaughlin’s Attention-Processing Model
Language learners make L2 errors because they may not be able to juggle all the necessary L2 linguistic information since they are still trying to learn the grammatical features and application of rules.
– Pgs 28-30 in Horwitz (2008)– Pgs 282-286 in Brown (2000)
Bialystok’s Analysis/Automaticity Model
Second language learners make errors during the language learning and production process because they have to move back and forth between using their knowledge about the L2 and articulating that knowledge (i.e., automatic and controlled processing).
– Schmidt (1992) – Controlled and Automatic Processing– Brown (1994) – Theories of SLA 
Swain’s Output Hypothesis
Language learners are only able to learn to apply L2 grammatical rules correctly if they’re given opportunities to produce the target language in writing or speech. During these language production opportunities, it is natural for language learners to make errors. More opportunities for production and feedback about the errors will help them learn how to apply L2 grammatical rules correctly.
– Swain (1993) – The Output Hypothesis– Swain (2000) – The output hypothesis and beyond – Mediating acquisition through collaborative dialogue– Pg. 99 – 102 in Lantolf (2000) – Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning (available on google books) 
U-Shaped Learning or Backsliding
After language learners acquire new L2 grammatical forms, they sometimes resort back to incorrectly formed features that they had previously acquired because they are still in the process of restructuring their existing grammatical understanding to reflect the new learning.
– All articles in the “U-Shaped Learning” folder– John Case – Theory of U-Shaped Learning– pgs 57-59 in Grassi & Barker (2010) Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Students (available on google books)– pg. 303-304 in Ellis (1994) – The Study of Second Language Acquisition (available on google books)

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