SOLUTION AT Australian Expert Writers
CHAPTER II – REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATUREThe analysis of literature is divided into three parts. Next, a brief history is discussed on water safety and foreign affairs. After which the elite theory is explored and its related principles of hydro-cultural power. Finally, water protection is analysed for Egypt, Iraq , Jordan and Tunisia in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) region.Water Security and International Relations (IR)Water Protection AwarenessThe holistic and very broad definition of water protection. It is a social system that is popular in domestic , regional and foreign circles. For example, over 400 peer-reviewed studies of water protection have been published in the journals of social , natural and medical sciences between 1992 and 2012. Figure 2 (Bakker 2012) illustrates this.Figure 5: Water Security Publications 1992-2012 (Bakker 2012)One of the problems of water safety research is that it has several meanings for scientists and practitioners who have diverse viewpoints based on their scholarly, stakeholder and sector affiliations (2012). In security studies, therefore, the academic literature has identified water protection in various ways and has instigated debate and discussion on various water safety structures and approaches (Allan 1994). The word -water protection- must be clearly described as a class of international relations concerns. The scientist concludes that the term applies to concerns of quality and access. The Agricultural and Economic Research (ABARE) Office of Australia reports that water protection covers human health, environmental issues and water quality. It specifically recognises relationships with wider social , economic , political and environmental systems as well.Water protection will cover a broad range of dimensions, including climate change , water scarcity, cross-border cooperation and good governance issues, according to the United Nations Water Program (U.N. Water 2013). A panel of United Nations Water Experts describes water security as a population capacity to guarantee the long-term safety of the population from water contamination and water disasters and the preservation of ecosystems in sustainable environments by ensuring that sufficient quality of water sources, livelihoods, human well-being and social and economic growth can be safeguarded. The key goal of water protection is illustrated in this concept , i.e. achieving a wider sense of ecological sustainable development and human security.The reliable supply of an appropriate quantity and water quality for development, livelihoods and health, combined with a reasonable degree of risk to society for unpredictable water-related impacts, is another important understanding of water protection (Grey and Sadoff 2007).Climate protection requires activities in three priority regions or elements: control of water supplies, service delivery and water-related risks mitigation (World Bank 2018b). It is axiomatic. They emerged in Table 1 from Table 6 of the Sustainable Development Goals ( SDGs). This mission aims to ensure -water and sanitation for all by 2030 will be accessible and sustainable- (UN 2018).Table 1: Sixth Sustainable Development Goal – Water and Sanitation (UN 2017)6.1: Universal and equal access to healthy and accessible drinking water for all by 20306.2: In 2030 the rights of women and girls and those in disadvantaged circumstances to adequate and fair sanitation and hygiene was achieved and the open defecation was stopped.6.3: By 2030 water quality will improve by reducing emissions, disposal and reducing the release of toxic substances and products, halving waste water content and significantly increasing recycling and safe reuse worldwide.6.4: Sustainable extraction and supply of fresh water in order to tackle water shortage and dramatically reduce the number of people living with water scarcity by 2030.6.5: Integrated control of capital on all levels, including cross-border cooperation, by 2030,6.6: By 2020, habitats associated with water, including mountains , forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and seas, will be preserved and restored6.A: Enhance international cooperation on water and sanitation-related power, wastewater, recycling and reuse technology to improve developed countries by 2030, including water extraction, desalination, water efficiencies and other programmes.6.B: Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management.International Relations – Water SecurityThe reliance of all countries on natural resources varies significantly. The extent that sufficient services are available to ensure its well-being and national life differs also.The main strategic threats eroding the legitimacy of states and generating domestic anarchy wars are global demographic, environmental and social stress (Kaplan 1994). This culminated in a multidisciplinary analysis of environmental and security relations (McMahon 2017).(1) While in the International Relations (IR) literature water policy as a natural resource has long been of interest, discussions on security and conflict are relatively recent. The state as the level and unit of study is essential to most IR literature, and security studies. This is not the case in terms of water protection, since water goes beyond several thresholds and the monitoring unit is not always the state (2017). The leading Structural Realists, Kenneth Waltz three-level analysis model, should therefore be approached:(2) Individual: human traits — perceptions, pictures, comprehension, psychology;(3) State: decision-making by states; economic power; military power; internal factors; and(4) System: mutual relations between dispute and collaboration states and non-state stakeholders (Waltz 1979).Transnational actors, knowledge societies and public and private stakeholder networks play an important role in various water issues during the 21st century (McMahon 2017).Figure 4: Waltz Three Levels of AnalysisLEVEL 1: INDIVIDUALPersonality, Perceptions, Activities and Choices.LEVEL 2: SATATEGovernment, Economy, Intereste Groups and National Interests.LEVEL 3: INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM:Alliances, International Norms/Rules, Mutlinational Cooperation, Interngovernmantal organizationsAlthough International Relations ( IR) literature focuses on war and violent cross-state conflicts, there is agreement that cooperation is the dictation of water relations between States instead of violent conflicts (McMahon 2017). Research indicates that there is no likelihood of water insecurity leading to violent conflict among countries (Wolf 2007).However, other research supposes that -problems of access to freshwater and water insecurity will not only result in domestic violence and warfare- (Setter et al. 2011).Joseph Nye and Robert Keohanes International Relations Theory of Power Theory claims that there is a number of asymmetric and complex concepts of state interdependence (1997). You explain that two kinds of power exist: hard and soft. Soft power comes as a policy power and the spread of ideas, diplomacy, culture and history.(Nye, 2004). 2004). The hard power of other states is the use of economic and military means to influence their behaviour. For security studies this theory of power is relevant. On the other hand, a developing Nation has considerably more power and therefore controls a wider range of resources, both in its own territory and within the borders of poorer countries, which it can use to promote its own growth. For example, many states struggle to have enough water to satisfy their development needs, rivalry for this resource does not result in direct water wars, but it may intensify current power struggles between states and help to bring about bilateral or regional tension. In regional and foreign power politics, Water was used as a strategic weapon (Zawahris 2008)Moreover, in view of the UNs inclusion of this objective and a mandate for transparent and inclusive institutions at all levels (SDG 16), -action is required in order not to continue to leak water resources through systematic and systemic corruption- (Transparency International). In the sense of building -integrities- walls for openness, accountability, engagement and anti-corruption policies , institutions and decision-makers will play a critical role in Water Integrity Network Outlook (WIGO) (2016). All of this will lead to the national as well as regional securitization of the water sector. In comparison to open warfare, however, -global civil disorder, transition of governments , political radicalization and chaos- will have the most likely implications (Homer- Dixon et al . 1993). Water shortages will aggravate conflicts and conflict within societies.Elite TheoriesThe definition of -elites- has become one of the mantras that are controversial and elusive in the social sciences. Elites are tiny classes of people possessing disproportionate control and strength (Britannica 2019). In his masterpiece The Spirit and Culture (1956), the word goes back to the writings of the Italien philosopher, Elfredo Pareto (1848-1932). Elites are a group of corporate, government and military leaders sharing common interests, societal assets and values within their dominant sector (Mills, 1956). They are members of government agencies (legislatures, presidencies, cabinets, political parties), civil bureaucracies, military and security forces, large corporations and corporate associations. They also represent major landowning interest groups; labour unions.The definition of -elite- has historically been used to examine social contexts, especially with regard to history mobility and systemic types of human journeys, in their most important manifestations. In studying social complexity with its problematic and interrelated nature researchers have used this term very widely.The current theory of elite refers to the term elites as stakeholders which control capital, occupy key positions and communicate through power and influence networks (Yamokoski and Dubrow 2008). Two key elite theories: classical elite and pluralist élite are discussed in the literature review.Classical Elite TheoryA -single-track- ideology, based on the social class struggle between property owners and the proletariats – working classes –, is opposed to the traditional elite theory (Bottomore 1993). Moreover, a multicausal approach as well as minority domina tion is required to research human society, which is a -unmistakable- characteristic of human society (Mosca in 1939). The ruling elites, for example, may be individuals as a social group who play a significant role in the highest power level, directly or indirectly (Pareto, 1935).Pluralist/ Strategic Elite TheoryThe subject of this theory is the pluralist establishment system that can be related to economic, political and environmental issues. (Republic of Korom 2015). It also applies to working and political leaders. The creation of strategic elites includes four processes: -population growth, labour division rise, the rise of structured organisations and moral diversity growth- (Keller 1963).These elites establish their individuality and power-related hierarchy (Khan 2012). For example, in Western societies such as Germany, the USA, etc., there are numerous elites (Dahrendorf, 1962; Mannheim, 1940). Dahrendorf argues that society consists of a multitude of interest groups that produce a large number of attitudes and disputes and that each group has a loosely organised group of persons occupying similar positions (1962).Analysis and CriticismThere are various critiques of C-led classical and pluralist classes. Pierre Bourdieu and Wright Mills. The word -elites- means that a few upper class members will govern a different social areas, says Mills, (1956). Mills (1956) Bourdieu (1999) has reinforced this stance, believing that the ruling class will continue its conventional demands for key social leadership functions. The social distribution of power as well as government and education systems (1999) he also criticizes.The subordinate classes, by its name -their habitus,- or cultural capital, are believed to contribute to their being goals in the realisation of power (1999).Elites and Water SecurityThe role of elites in comparative water security studies is relatively little studied. However, a number of topics covered the idea of elite, among them political elites (Suckerman 1977), industrial elites (Boschi and Diniz, 2004), the military elites (Mills, 1995), media elites (Lopez, 2012), faith elites (Wald, 1992), elite athletes (Lorenz 2013) and science elites (Zuckerman, 1995). Every society of government, profession and religion, and all other institutional realms, they are important constituents(Mills 1956; Pareto 1935).-Water elites- have unclear features, provided that their status can differ with a spectrum of validity. The use of this modern language must also be regulated. Many professions may have water leaders, including hydrologists, electrical mechanics engineers, water managers , researchers and other individuals, who are skilled, influential and well placed with respect to water resources. This elite may or may not have any impact on national or regional water policy , especially in authoritarian ruling countries or even the rest of the elites. The political leadership and decision makers may also not think of water in the same terms that the water elite does.The leading position of the Egyptian-Greek engineer Adrian Daninos in proposing the building of the high dam on the river Nile represents a strong classic case of the water elite. Daninos proposed to the government of King Farouk an ambitious proposal before the 1952 revolution but it was always rejected. In 1953 Daninos agreed to bring the project to President Jamal Abdul Alnaser s new Egyptian government. The building of an enormous dam in Aswan saved the water from the Nile flood and produced electric energy using this large quantity of water.The Egyptian government accepted the project (Collins 2000).This research therefore describes or suggests that the water elites should possess the following characteristics:a. a. Global water-related experience;b. b. At least five years of water training in high-level professionals;c. c. publication to their credit of conference papers;d. d. Active membership and positions in national , regional and/or international water issues organisations.Water Security in the Middle East and North Africa RegionFor every country in the MENA region, water is a popular security challenge. This group comprises 22 nations, including: Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt , Iran, Iraq , Jordan, Cambodia, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya , Morocco, Oman , Qatar , Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, the United States, the West Bank and Gaza, and Iran. These countries are categorised according to their wealth in three groups. Firstly, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco , Tunisia, Lebanon and Jibouti are resource-poor and labour-abundant economies. Secondly, Algeria, Islamic Republic of Iran , Iraq, the Syrian Arab Republic and Yemen constitute the resource-rich and labor-intensive economies. Third, Saudi Arabia , the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar , Oman and Bahrain are the resource rich and labour consuming economies (Dobler 2011).According to the Fragile Countries Index (FSI), some MENA countries, including Irak, Syria , Yemen and Libya, are very fragile because their level of growth exceeds their governance ability, thus perpetuating the risk of social unrest. On the other hand, several relatively stable MENA countries, including Jordan, Egypt and Tunisia (Dimsdale and Mabey 2018) are necessary if regional stability is to be maintained.There are three main areas for water protection in the MENA area: IWRM; water services; and water conservation (World Bank 2018). Water safety in the region is the most critical sector.Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM)The tight water supplies make the current political fragility of MENA even more difficult. It emerges in part from the control of three scarcity levels (World Bank 2007). Firstly , physical resources are limited, ensuring that the maximum amount of water is regulated, people are shielded from fluctuations on supply and water is distributed to consumers in the field of engineering. Secondly, organisational ability shortage focuses on competent water resource management organisations to deliver quality facilities as effectively as possible.Two thirds of the total MENA water supply is provided by surface water. The MENA is home to over half of its clean water supplies.Thus the Tigris Euphrates, the Nile, the Jordan River and Medjerda are critical for lighting up the regions basins. These cross-border resources are connected with a range of interdependencies between climate, politics, economic and security. Multiple, dynamic, human-driven and natural stresses continue to influence and degrade these basins. Iraq and Egypt, for example, depend almost entirely on transboundary water supplies from the outside (Figure 3). Superficial and underground water such as Jordan and Tunisia is used by other MENA countries.The Global Facility for the Environment (GEF) initiated Transboundary Waters Assessment Program (TWAP) allocated relative level of risk across a spectrum of six topic groups with sets of indicators to transboundary water basins (De Stefano et al . 2016).The first group is water quality with three indicators:1. Water tension for the climate,2. Stress of human water3. Water stress farming.The second category consists of two metrics on water quality:1. Pollution of nutrients2. Pollution of waste water.The third community consists of four ecosystems:1. Disconnectedness of wetlands,2. The effect of dam on the environment3. Fishing danger4. Chance of extinguishing.Including three indicators, the fourth is governance:1. Judicial background,2. Hydro-political burden3. Enable environment. Enable environment.Finally, there are three measures in the socio-economic group:1. Dependence on water supplies economically,2. Well-being in culture3. Influx and droughts risk(UNEP DHI and United Nations Economic Policy, 2016). These are: very low (1), low (2), moderate (3), high (4) and very high (5) These risk levels:The longest river in the world is the Nile. As its basin covers all the countries of Egypt, Sudan, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Congo, Rwanda , Burundi, Uganda and Tanzania the Nile is subject to political interaction. The Nile consists of the White Nile, the Blue Nile and the Atbara River. (British Encyclopedia). The relative average risk for the basin is low (Level 2) (2016), according to the TWAP evaluation.Figure 6: Comparable Large River Basins – MENA RegionTigris –Euphrates River Basin ( Pearce, 2014) The Nile River Basin (Ayeb, 2013)Before entering the Persian Gulf, the Euphrates flows from Turkey, through Syria and Iraq. The Tigris in Turkey rises further east and traverses Iraq. It goes along a parallel path towards the Euphrates before the two rivers in the southern marshes mix water. The relative average risk for this basin is 4 (High) (2016), as per TWAP assessments. TWAP assessment. The researchers shall provide more comparable and contrasting data from the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates basins and shall concentrate the Egyptian and Iraqi Basin Country Units in Chapter 4 , respectively. It flows southwards through northern Israel to Tiberius Lake on the slopes of the occupied Syrian Golan Heights, at the border between Syria and Lebanon. It continues southwards, dividing Israel and the Western Palestinian Occupied Territories (OPTs) into the Dead Sea (Encyclopedia Britannica 2020) from Jordan to the East.The relative average risk level is Very high for this basin (level 5) (2016), according to the TWAP evaluation.The Medjerda River flows through Tunisia and into the Mediterranean Sea from Northeast Algeria. The relative average risk level for this basin is 5 (Very High) according to the TWAP evaluation.The researcher will provide more comparable and contrasting details of these two basins (Jordan and Medjerda) in Chapter five.Figure 7: Relative Comparable Small River Basins- MENA RegionJordan River Basin ( Libiszewski, (1995) Medjerda River Basin (REC 2020)The challenges for MENA Transborder River Basins can be addressed by recommending and implementing effective and efficient practises at national and regional levels in Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM).IWRM is a framework designed to improve the management of water resources based on Dublin-Rio Principles in 1992 (WMO 1992). The increasing scarcity of water resources due to different conflicting use and over-use of water is recognised by these principles. Principle 1 states that “ fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource essential to sustain life, development , and the environment. The main emphasis on the need to build on the participatory approach of water development and administration, involving users, planners and policy makers at all levels. Main 3 emphasises the importance of women in the provision, administration and protection of water. In all its conflicting uses, the main four States water has an economic benefit and must be considered an agricultural commodity. MENA countries have made efforts to integrate into their tres fields, water supply , water demand management and water relocation, these fundamental concepts of the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM).Water SupplyThe MENA region of Middle Africa is arid in some areas and since the water there appears to be distributed uniformly -(Snow, 2008). Water, as a natural resource is not enough for current use. It comprises around 0.7% of the freshwater resource available worldwide (CEDARE 2006).Figure 8: Annual Renewable Freshwater Resources per Capita (m3/person/year, 2012)Table 2: Relevant MENA Country Water Supply and Demand (Consolidated Data)MENA Country Unit Water Supply & Demand Indicators Iraq Egypt Jordan TunisiaPopulation in 2010 (in thousands) (WPP 2010) 31,672 81,121 6,187 10,481Population in 2050 (in thousands) (WPP 2019) 83,357 123,452 9,882 12,649Total annual renewable water resources, 2010 (in 109 m3/yr) 75.61 11.67 0.937 4.595Total annual water resources per capita, 2010 (in m3/person/year) 2387 329 151.4 438.4Total annual water withdrawals,2005 or most recent year (in 109 m3/yr) 66 (in2000) 6.161 (in 2000) 0.941 2.85 (in 2001)Total annual water withdrawals per capita, 2005 or most recent year (in m3/person/year) 2616 (in2000) 195.9 (in 2000) 166 295.8 (in 2001)Water Demand Management (WDM)The shortage of water supplies from MENA remains a key concern.The key explanation for this may be the rising difference between the declining efficient supply and increased demand for water.There are a number of concepts in water demand management (WDM). Its known simply as -having the most water we have- (Brooks 2007). Finally, the IDRC provides a succinct description specific to the MENA zone. The IDRC provides a simple description. WDM is described -any implementation of practises or policies which will lead to a more efficient, fair and sustainable water use- (Arafa et al . 2007).Water ReallocationWhile water governance, the change in management paradigm, focuses on several aspects of ensuring the sustainable use and distribution of water resources, the reallocation of water resources may be one of the best policy options of order to meet these goals. Systemically, reassignment tackles the topic of unequal water resources distribution. This ensures that water is distributed and allocated equitably. But water restructuring demands strong and more rigorous water decisions which, because of the lack of well-structured and decentralised institutional structures, are complex and may even be contentious in the developing countries (Grigg,2008)(Bruch & Jessica, 2011).Water- Related Risk MitigationThe MENA water stakeholders are advancing, but in slow motion in response to internal and external problems in water and sanitation (Rached & Brooks 2010). Water is being improved. A multi-sector collaboration strategy that includes domestic , regional and international capital and expertise from -service agencies, international financial institutions, diplomatic engagement, private-sector innovation and the armed forces- must therefore be created. (Risi, 2018).The Water Industry of MENA has seen broader stakeholders involved in a number of ways , for example in the establishment of the Amman, Jordan, Arab Countries Water Utilities Association in 2009 (ACWUA 2019). The MENA region also has other mechanisms for water management which, because of myriad geopolitical and socio-cultural factors, are experiencing inter- and inter-state conflict and resulting instability. The freshwater shortage crisis tops the list of its environmental problems , for example, it is the driestriest area of the planet. Freshwater is now -under the international level of 1,700 cubic metres, which describes water-stressing countries, and is now accessible in most MENA countries- (PRP 2019). People in the region have almost the same water needs as in the other regions. Water for home, drinking, commercial, municipal and food production should be available. The temperatures in the area are high , which means that fresh water has a high degree of evaporation. In the Middle East, there is rapid population growth, thus rising the demand for water. By 2050, roughly 60 percent of the water supply in the area is from outside (EXACT, 1998; Falkenmark, 2001; Lancaster, 1999; Ohlsson, 1999).According to Bar and Stang (2016), several experts are currently agreeing that political uncertainty and water insecurity can be related to climate change that will inevitably exacerbate political instability. This thesis focuses on the region of the Middle East and North Africa as the worlds water-scarce nation. It is not surprising that the MENA governments regard water issues as national security issues. The MENA area is home to approximately 5 % of the world s population, but has less than 1% (Swain and Jägerskog, 2016).).The World Bank (2008c) notes that the natural water supply available is around 20 percent higher than the general water demand. In addition, there is insufficient water management and use, waste, outdated water networks and infrastructures, as well as a lack of fiscal, political and legal mechanisms for managing transboundary water resources. The regions natural water pressures have risen as a result of climate change. Researchers argue that it as an agent that multiplies menaces by escalating global uncertainty, conflicts and developments is the best way to tackle climate change. This statement is right since the area is already unstable and conflict prone(European Commission, 2008). The European Union ( EU) states that climate change directly affects European interests with humanitarian consequences and political and safety threats (EU 2008). Climate change responses should also be multilateral and multi-sectoral. The NATO released a study that the scourging for resources has led to increased regional instability (NATO 2007) The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The NATO report strongly advises worsening and conflict causing social , environmental and economic problems even though conventional causes are essential triggers. The combination of misgovernance, conflict, climate change and demographics has worsened the situation, Martens (2017). Martens points out Protection, water shortage, and climate change are the confluence of crises in MEAN regions (Schaar 2019) according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). He claims that -MENA states are repressing democratic debate and action on the water and climatic crises in authoritarian and militarised regimes, and seeing opponents as threats to national security. But the economic interests and role of the elite in the political economy are making them vulnerable to new threats and menaces (Schaar 2019).Serageldin (2001 ) argues that a failure to respond to water crises and shortages in Egypt, Yemen and Syria has led to the emergence of the -Arab Spring.- The Syrian government , for example, failed sufficiently to respond against the regions prolonged drought. Furthermore, miscalculated national policies have led to drastic water crises affecting agricultural land, thus increasing critical products prices. The regions water crisis reached its national borders with a mass migratory migration to Europe. (SIWI 2016).The boundaries between Israel are with Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria. These countries also share water resources (Dellapenna 2001; Sharif 1996). They also share water resources. Israel has produced a massive amount of water for domestic or industrial use, making it the water powerhouse of the world (Wolf, 1995; Odeinheimer, 2017). This has also led to technical changes. In order to deal with water protection, Israel and Jordan have come together. This intervention has made Israel increase the Jordanian water supply sufficiently to satisfy its people and the Syrian refugees. (Kolars, 1990; Allan, 1996; Haddadin, 2002).ACWUA is a centre of excellence for partners with Arab water and waste water suppliers to create capacity within institutions and implement best practise to help utilities achieve their target (ACWUA 2019). The Arabian Water Ulities Association (ACWUA) is a centre of excellence. In addition to private sector firms, NGOs (NGOs), academic institutes and individual members (2019), it has over 100 water supply firms from 18 Arab countries. Another regional NGO, the Arab Water Council (AWC), was founded in 2004 and is based in Cairo , Egypt. 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