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PHIL623 Healthcare EthicsAssessment Task 1Multiple-choice and Short-answer QuestionsDue date: Friday September 18, by 5pmWeighting: 30%Length and/or format: 15 multiple choice (1 mark each) and 3 short answer questions (5 marks each).How to submit: Submit through LEO by following the link in the Assessment block of LEO.Return of assignment: Electronically, via LEO Grades.Assessment criteria:1. Demonstrated comprehension of basic concepts and theories (90%)2. Clarity of expression and structuring of thoughts (10%)ASSESSMENT TASK 1(A) Multiple-Choice QuestionsChoose one (1) answer only. There is one (and only one) clearly correct answer for each question.Tip: there are no trick questions here. It helps to pay close attention to the wording of each question.1. Aristotle’s ethics places emphasis on:A. Developing moral characterB. Doing one’s dutyC. Physical pleasuresD. Acting to promote the best consequences2. A moral philosopher you have studied who comes closest to what can be called‘common sense morality’ is:A. Immanuel KantB. Peter SingerC. AristotleD. Homer Simpson3. Rawls’ signature Difference Principle implies that:A. Inequality is forbidden under any circumstanceB. A redistribution is permitted so that wealth may trickle down to the poorC. The worst-off rationally ought to permit greater inequality if they benefit from such a changeD. Wealth redistribution is permissible if it makes a difference to health budgets4. A key objection to moral subjectivism is that:A. Two subjectivists cannot rationally have an argument over what is objectively morally trueB. We do not have subjective moral emotionsC. Ethics depends essentially on conventionsD. Morality is relative to each person’s subjective opinion5. On a Divine Command view of morality an act A is right only because:A. A is right in itselfB. God’s will constitutes A’s rightnessC. Evil forces always act against GodD. Doing A maximises good consequences6. A claim most closely associated with utilitarianism is that:A. Lying is always wrongB. You should treat others as you would have them treat youC. Actions are right if they lead to the greatest happiness for the greatest number D. Our conscience is the best guide to acting morally7. People have intrinsic dignity because:A. No human person is replaceableB. It is something we can give or take away from each otherC. Lacking dignity would lead to bad consequencesD. Dignity has an incredibly high price8. In ethics two key ideas definitive of autonomy are:A. Automaticity and hegemonyB. Respect and the capacity to loveC. Self-efficacy and consentD. Self-governance and self-determination9. In clinical care, rational compassion (or ‘great compassion’) does not require empathy because:A. Rational people never display empathyB. Empathic people only care about people they knowC. Compassion is not centrally about having feelings for othersD. Empathy (feeling what another feels) can work against good levels of professional detachment10. Moral integrity would be hard to practice as a utilitarian because:A. People with moral integrity find rules appealingB. Utilitarianism sometimes requires a person to act in ways inconsistent with their core valuesC. Utilitarianism is hard to practiceD. Utilitarians with moral integrity are rare11. That the foundations of morality rest completely on conscience is problematic because:A. There can be (indeed there are) cases of bad people who act with a conscienceB. The possession of a moral conscience can lead to having sympathy for people we may not respectC. Doing the morally correct thing has nothing to do with acting on conscience D. Most people who consult their conscience are not in touch with reality12. A healthcare professional who formed an ongoing romantic relationship with a patient/client would be acting unethically because:A. Romance in the clinic is unseemlyB. The governing conditions for this kind of professional-client relationship are based on the moral goals of healthcare (the prevention of disease/disorder), which do not include romanceC. Other clients/patients may become jealous of this special attention D. Romance in the clinic would breach a utilitarian principle13. Suppose some government formulated a healthcare policy making the very rich much better off (in healthcare terms) than the poor; however, this policy also has the effect ofraising the level of healthcare for the poor, though not by much. Everyone’s healthcare goes up, but unequally. This change is most compatible with:A. The hypothetical imperativeB. The principle of respect for personsC. The difference principleD. Libertarianism14. A patient may seek the services of an advocate (i.e., a patient advocate) when:A. Her rights around informed consent in a medical setting have been breachedB. She is feeling distressed and unhappyC. She needs advice in relation to her share portfolioD. She wants someone to help her make a will15. No one could have a legitimate entitlement to healthcare according to:A. LiberalismB. CommunitarianismC. A Libertarian approachD. A Rawlsian approach(B) Short-Answer QuestionsAnswer three (3) questions in total, one from Module 1, one from Module 2, and one from Module 3.Each question should be about half a page (250-300 words).Module 1 questions (choose one of these)(1) Both Rachels and Singer (from your readings) argue for a ‘first base’ or ‘minimalist’ conception of ethics. Their arguments converge on the idea that acting ethically must factor in the interests of all those affected by what a person does (or fails to do). What is your understanding of this idea, and do you agree that any ethical theory ought to require it? Present your reasons.OR(2) Which of the normative theories (described in Part 2 of Module 1) do you think best supports healthcare ethics? (Hint: it is possible to think that some combination of theories is best suited.)Module 2 questions (choose one of these)(1) A person may lose his or her dignity in either of the two senses we have outlined in the online Module notes. Provide two examples (real or hypothetical) that depict such losses (an example for each sense), and explain why you think dignity is lost in the cases you mention.OR(2) Are there cases in which the autonomy of the patient can be overridden? If you think so, provide such a case, and give reasons why you think it can. If you think autonomy can never be overridden, explain why you think so.Module 3 questions (choose one of these)(1) Can too much (or even just some) empathy compromise good professional judgement? Present your reasons. (Hint: refer to the work of Paul Bloom.)OR(2) Refer to your reading by Norman Daniels. What is Daniels’ argument for thinking that healthcare has special moral importance.
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