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Last Updated November 2014 page 1Nursing & MidwiferyHarvard [Author-Date] Referencing GuideAcademic writing requires you to read, research and refer to the work of other people. Eachtime you write about the ideas and words of others, it is necessary to identify their work bymaking reference to it. You do this both in the text of your assignments, and in a list at the endof these assignments. You need to reference information from books, journals, videos, theWorld Wide Web and other print and electronic sources.Many schools within the University of Tasmania have their own style guides indicating howassignments should be referenced. Nursing and Midwifery use Harvard referencing (which isone of the author-date styles). This guide gives a basic introduction to the Harvard referencingsystem, and follows the standard prescribed by Snooks and Co. (2002), which is the officialstyle followed in most Australian Government publications.Questions about ReferencingWhat is Referencing?In your written work you will need to demonstrate your engagement with the scholarly literature.A common view by students is that “what they say has to be ‘backed up’ by a ‘reference’”.Scholarly endeavour, (such as the one in which you are engaged) is about the production ofknowledge, therefore it is suggested you think of referencing more as a demonstration of yourengagement with the literature, and what you have learned, as articulated through your ideasand discussion.It is important that you understand how to correctly refer to the work of others and maintainacademic integrity.Failure to appropriately acknowledge the ideas of others constitutes academic dishonesty(plagiarism), a matter considered by the University of Tasmania as a serious offence.When should I reference? ALWAYSA reference is always required if you:
directly quote (using someone else’s work in their exact words)paraphrase (stating other authors’ ideas or theories in your own words)summarise (using a brief account of other authors’ ideas)copy statistics, figures, data, tables or structureuse evidence which is or might be in disputeuse other writers’ interpretations
Why should I reference? The ultimate purpose of referencing is so the reader can find thisinformation.
provides the foundation (evidence, scholarship) of your discussionhelps demonstrate or substantiate your argumentshows the extent of your reading and researchshows the reader the source of your informationallows the reader to verify your dataallows the reader to independently consult your sources
Last Updated November 2014 page 2How do I reference?The Harvard system requires two things: an ‘in-text’ reference a list of references at the end of the textIn-text referencesThere are three elements that must be included:
Surname (family name) of the authorYear of publicationPage number if quoting or closely paraphrasing an author’s work
Reference ListNot only must you put referencing material within your assignment (referred to as in-text), youmust also have a list of references at the end of your essay, which must list all the sourcescited in the text. The heading for this list is either ‘List of References’ or ‘References’ and the listalways begins on a new page.

Arrange the reference list in alphabetical order of authors’ surnames, and thenchronologically for each author where more than one work by that author is cited [NOTE: ina reference with 2 or more authors, surnames should be listed as they appear in the workcited];For each reference, the author’s surname (family name) is placed first, followed by initials,then the year of publication is given followed by details of the publication;The name of the publication (usually a book or journal) appears in italics;Each entry in the reference list should be flush with the left margin;Do NOT put dot points or numbers in front of your references;There should be a blank line space between each entry in the reference list.

General comment on Harvard style – TitlesHarvard requires all titles to have only the first word capitalized, even though the book title orjournal article uses more capital letters.Exceptions to the rule:legal documents – Acts/Bills/Hearingsproper nouns – names of people/places/organizations /names of journalsDo NOT use the term – BibliographyA bibliography refers to a final list of all the works you have read about a subject, some of whichmay not have been used in writing your assignment. Academic writing only requires you to listsources you have actually cited when writing your assignment. These are included in the abovedescribed ‘List of References’.How to Avoid PlagiarismParaphrasing or summarisingIt is best to take notes from lectures and readings in your own words. For readings, close yourbook, make your notes in your own words, reflecting your own understanding of the reading,and then check back to correct any misunderstood details. This way you can more easilyparaphrase or summarise the key ideas from credible sources. This is the best way to provideevidence in your writing for your arguments.The major part of your writing should be in your own words; however, all concepts,knowledge gained from elsewhere should be referenced immediately by an in-text citation andin the Reference List. No page number is needed.Last Updated November 2014 page 3EXAMPLE – SUMMARISINGMcNaughton et al. (2009) write about the importance of diet in the context of diabetes.Short QuotationsIf you do want to use someone else’s words, make sure you have copied them exactly ANDplaced them inside of single quotation marks, accompanied by an in-text citation which includesthe page number:EXAMPLE – SHORT QUOTATIONWhen investigating diabetes, McNaughton et al.focus ‘on dietary patterns rather than specific dietarycomponents’ (2009, p.734).Long QuotationsLong quotations of more than 30 words or approximately 3 lines are NOT PUT IN QUOTATIONMARKS. Long quotations should be put in their own paragraph which is indented with an in-textcitation that includes the page number/numbers. Use such quotations sparingly!EXAMPLE – LONG QUOTATIONBreast milk is the optimal choice of feed for preterm infants and bestows manyadvantages. Analysis has revealed that preterm mothers produce richer milk forapproximately 2 weeks post birth that may match the requirements of heavier babies (iethose >1500g) as a sole source of nutrition during that time (Bates & Ducker 2005, p.121).Secondary citationsIf you refer to the concepts or ideas of an author quoted in a journal article/book/text you arereading, you name the original author and use the term ‘cited in’ naming the text you arecurrently reading. The text you are reading is the one you include in your Reference List NOTthe ‘secondary citation’. The in-text citation is formatted as below.EXAMPLE – SECONDARY CITATIONHonari (cited in Wass 1994, p.46) defines health as ‘a sustainable state of well-being within sustainableecosystems, within a sustainable biosphere’.ORHealth is defined as ‘a sustainable state of well-being within sustainable ecosystems, within asustainable biosphere’ (Honari, cited in Wass 1994, p. 46).Referencing common knowledgeThere is no need to reference common knowledge, such as the fact that Florence Nightingalewas a nurse during the Crimean War. However, differing accounts of her impact on modern daynursing practice require references to indicate the source of your information and/or sourcesthat support your argument.NOTE:When obtaining information from the WorldWideWeb (WWW) it is important to only refer tocredible sites.WWW CREDIBILITY CRITERIA

author’s credentials – a verifiable expert in the field; what level of qualifications does thisexpert have?verifiable organisation publishing the web page;could the organisation’s aims bias the information being presented?content – is current with no errors, based on research not mere opinionlinks – connect to other verifiable sources
Last Updated November 2014 page 4Constructing a reference list using the Harvard systemOnly include works actually cited. The following elements must be included in a reference list:For a book: Author surname (family name), Author initials year of publication, Book title, edition (if not first),Publisher’s name, City of publication.LeMone, P & Burke, KM 2000, Clinical handbook for medical-surgical nursing, 2rd edn, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J.For a chapter in an edited book: Author surname (family name), Author initials year of publication, ‘Title ofchapter’, in Editor initials and surname (ed./eds), Book title, Publisher’s name, City of publication, pp. pagenumbers.Harvey, C, Meadows, G & Singh, B 2007, ‘Mental disorder in Australia’, in G Meadows, B Singh & M Grigg (eds),Mental health in Australia : collaborative community practice, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, pp.167-189.For a print journal or newspaper article: Author surname (family name), Author initials year of publication,‘Article title’, Journal title, vol. volume number, no. issue number, pp. page numbers.Herth, K 2006, ‘Fostering hope in terminally-ill people’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1250-59.An ampersand [&] joinsthe second and lastauthorAuthor’ssurname (familyname) followedby a comma,then initial(s)Year ofpublicationfollowed by acomma – nobracketsTitle of the article using single quotationmarks. There is a capital letter for thefirst word of the title ONLY, and there isa comma after the second quotation markTitle of the journal initalics, followed by acommaVolume numberof the journalNumber ofthe issuePage numbersof the articleAuthors’ surnames(family names) followedby a comma, then initials(no comma betweeninitial and [&] or [year])Year ofpublicationfollowed bya comma –no brackets‘Title of the chapter’, is in single quotation marks,followed by initials and surnames of editor(s)with (ed.) or (eds)to indicatethese are the editor/sThe book’s title is in italics Publisher City of publication Chapter’s pages arealso includedAuthors’ surnames (familynames) followed by acomma, then initial(s)Year ofpublicationfollowed bya comma –no bracketsTitle of the book in italics, followed by a comma.Upper case is used for the first wordPublisherEdition – City of publicationif notfirstLast Updated November 2014 page 5For an electronic journal article: Author surname (family name), Author initials year of publication, ‘Article title’,Journal title, vol. volume number, no. issue number, pp. page numbers (if there are any), retrieval statement:viewed month day year, database name and/or <URL>.Evans, J 2009, ‘Prevalence, risk factors, consequences and strategies for reducing medication errors in Australianhospitals: a literature review’, Contemporary Nurse, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 176-189, viewed 10 January 2010, HealthCollection (Informit), <http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=637626944259759;res=IELHEA>.For a special publication : Author surname (family name), Authorinitials year of publication, Special publication title in italics if published, ‘but not in italics if unpublished’, descriptionof document, day/ month of publication, publisher, city, date viewed, database name and/or <URL>.Murray, K 2003, Haven: the art and craft of refuge in Tasmania, exhibition catalogue, 27 March -10 May,Salamanca Arts Centre, Hobart, Tasmania.Sands, DCC 2008, ‘A study of suicide grief: meaning making and the griever’s relational world’, PhD Thesis,University of Technology, Sydney, viewed 10 November 2009, Australasian Digital Theses Program,<http://hdl.handle.net/2100/777>.Title of special publication in italics if published description of type ofdocumentday / month‘Title of special publication in quotation marks’ if not published description of type of documentDate viewed on www with a comma after year online database name and/or urlDatabasenameAuthor’s surnamefollowed by a commaand the initial(s)Title of the article inquotation marksfollowed by a commaTitle of the journalin italics, followedby a commaThe URL (World Wide Web address)is enclosed between < > and followedby a full stopDate viewed on www with a commaafter yearYear of publicationfollowed by a comma – nobracketsLast Updated November 2014 page 6Referencing Examples:
In-text Examples
Reference List
1 author
(O’Connor 1957, p. 33)ORO’Connor (1957, p. 33) stated that, ‘…’
O’Connor, DJ 1957, An introduction to thephilosophy of education, Routledge &Kegan Paul, London.
2 or 3 authors
According to Summers and Smith(2002, p.45) ‘blah blah’.OR(Summers & Smith 2002, p. 45)Note: The ampersand (&) is used when theauthors’ names are inside brackets.
Summers, J & Smith B 2002,Communication skills handbook: how tosucceed in written and oral communication,John Wiley & Sons, Milton Qld.Note: The ampersand (&) is ALWAYS used intheList of References.
4 or more authors
(Happell et al. 2008)Note: ‘et al.’ [meaning ‘and others’] is usedfrom first mention in the text when there arefour or more authors.
Happell, B, Cowin, L, Roper, C, Foster, K &McMaster, R 2008, Introducing mentalhealthnursing: a consumer oriented approach,Allen & Unwin, Sydney.
No author
In the Guidebook to Australian socialsecurity law (1983) blah blahOR(Guidebook to Australian social securitylaw 1983)
Guidebook to Australian social security law1983, CCH Australia, North Ryde, NSW.Note: Cite the title instead of the author. Where itis a book, journal, brochure or report the titleshould be in italics. (Anonymous and Anon.should be avoided.)
Several books by thesame author –published in differentyears
Brennan (2006, 2007) has written aboutnurses
Brennan, S 2006, Contradictory stories : anoral history of a group of 1960s nursingstudents, School of Nursing and Midwifery,University of Tasmania, Launceston.Brennan, S 2007, The Fence on theprecipice: child welfare nursing 1918-1930,School of Nursing and Midwifery, Universityof Tasmania, Launceston.Note: Multiple works by the same author shouldbe in chronological order, beginning with theoldest work.
Several books by thesame author –published in the sameyear
(Jarvis 2008a, 2008b)Note: In the text simply insert a/b/c etc asappropriate, after the year of publication,within brackets.
Jarvis, C 2008a, Physical examination andhealth assessment, 5th edn, SaundersElsevier, Philadelphia.Jarvis, C 2008b, Student laboratory manualfor physical examination and healthassessment, 5th edn, Saunders Elsevier,Philadelphia.Note: Such references are ordered alphabeticallyby title – a/b/c are then allocated after year
Baum (2008) discusses ….Note: edition refers to each time a book/workhas been produced in a slightly altered form.1st editions are NOT noted in reference lists.
Baum F 2008, The new public health, 3rdedn, Oxford University Press, SouthMelbourne.Note: An edition number is placed after the titleof the work, between commas [NOT withinbrackets].
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Edited book
The concept of inequality (eds Carter &Peel, 1976) …Note: When referring to generalideas/themes in an edited book/publication,cite the editor/s of the book.
Carter, C & Peel, J (eds) 1976, Equalitiesand inequalities in health, Academic Press,London.Note: When only one author = (ed.)Note: place ed/eds WITHIN BRACKETS = (eds)
In-text Examples
Reference List
Chapter in an editedbook – with author/s
As discussed by Brotto (2009)Note: When referring to specificideas/concepts in a specific chapter of anedited book/publication cite the chapterauthor/s.
Brotto, V 2009, ‘Medication therapy’, in JCrisp & C Taylor (eds), Potter & Perry’sfundamentals of nursing, 3rd edn, Elsevier,Sydney, pp. 727-754.Note: place the page numbers of the chapter atthe end of the reference eg pp.727-754, asabove.
Adapted chapter in anedited book-with author/s
(Kretzschmer, Blackwell & Lewis 2008)
Kretzschmer, J, Blackwell, P & Lewis SL2008, ‘Nursing management: obesity’,adapted B McPherson, in D Brown & HEdwards (eds), Lewis’s medical-surgicalnursing: assessment and management ofclinical problems, 2nd edn, Elsevier, Sydney,pp. 1041-1060.
Chapter in an editedbook –no author/s
(‘Community-based nursing practice’2005)
‘Community-based nursing practice’ 2005,in J Crisp, C Taylor, A Perry & P Potter(eds), Potter & Perry’s fundamentals ofnursing, 2nd edn, Elsevier, Sydney, pp. 38-55.
E-book – in an onlinelibrary collection
(Benner, Sutphen & Leonard 2009)(Scanlon & Sanders 2007)
Benner, P, Sutphen, M & Leonard, V 2009,Educating nurses: a call for radicaltransformation, John Wiley & Sons,Hoboken, viewed 10 May 2010, EbooksCorporation,<http://www.utas.eblib.com.au.ezproxy.utas.edu.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=468681>.Scanlon, V & Sanders, T 2007, Essentials ofanatomy and physiology, 5th edn, FA Davis,Philadelphia, viewed 31 March 2008,NetLibrary,<http://www.netlibrary.com.ezproxy.utas.edu.au/>.Note: Give the name of the electronic bookpublisher and/or the main site URL, or the fullURL
E-book – on the WorldWide WebClassic Text example,recently republished
(Nightingale 2005 (1898))
Nightingale, F 2005 (1898), Notes onnursing: what it is and what it is not,Appelton, New York, viewed 2 October2008, Project Gutenberg,<http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=58626&pageno=1>.Note: work reprinted in a different form referSnooks p 201.
Encyclopaedia ordictionary –anonymous entries
The Oxford dictionary of nursing (2008, p.2)defines an abscess as ‘…’
Note: Do not include in the Reference List
Encyclopaedia article-with evident author/s
As explained by Peterson (1993) …
Peterson, CC 1993, ‘Adult children and theirparents’, in R Kastenbaum (ed.),Encyclopedia of adult development, theOryx Press, Pheonix, Arizona, pp.1-6.
Print Journals/ Media
In-text Example
Reference List
Last Updated November 2014 page 8
When investigating diabetes,McNaughton et al. focus ‘on dietarypatterns rather than specific dietarycomponents’ (2009, p.734).OR(McNaughton et al. 2009)
McNaughton, SA, Dunstan, DW, Ball, K,Shaw, J & Crawford D 2009, ‘Dietary qualityis associated with diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors 1-3’, The Journal ofNutrition, vol. 139, no.4, April, pp.734-742.
Journal article – noauthor
Even back in 1969 it was reported, ‘Insome hospitals the shortage is so criticalthat only the basic physical care of thepatient can be attempted’ (‘Psychiatricnursing’ 1969, p. 526).
‘Psychiatric nursing’ 1969, British MedicalJournal, vol. 1, p. 526.
Newspaper andmagazine articles
(Ellis 2009)
Ellis, N 2009, ‘Nurse practitioners: reform orrisk?’ The Examiner, 27 November, p.23.
Newspaper article –no author
It was stated in the Mercury (11 July2009, p. 2) that…
Note: No Entry in reference list. Details areincluded in the in-text entry instead.
Media release
(Patterson 2002)
Patterson, K (Minister for Health) 2002,Private health insurance rebate relievespressure on Victoria’s public hospitals,media release, Parliament House, Canberra,27 February.
In-text Example
Reference List
Journal article from anelectronic database
(Thorsell et al. 2008)Note: You do not need to give a URL (Webaddress) for electronic journal, newspaper ormagazine articles accessed through onlinelibrary databases. The name of the databaseis sufficient. The name of the supplier can beadded. For example: CINAHL database (EBSCO) PubMed database(U.S. National Library ofMedicine) Health Collection (Informit) Blackwell Science, Technology &Medicine Collection InformaWorld Current Subscriptions Directory of Open Access Journals Cochrane Library (Wiley Interscience) SpringerLinkANZ Reference Centre (EBSCO) orAustralia/New Zealand Reference Centre(EBSCO)
Thorsell, M, Kaijser, M, Almström, H &Andolf, E 2008, ‘Expected day of deliveryfrom ultrasound dating versus last menstrualperiod–obstetric outcome when datesmismatch’, BJOG: An International Journalof Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 115, no.5, pp. 585-589, viewed 6 November 2009,ProQuest Health and Medical Completedatabase.ORThorsell, M, Kaijser, M, Almström, H &Andolf, E 2008, ‘Expected day of deliveryfrom ultrasound dating versus last menstrualperiod–obstetric outcome when datesmismatch’, BJOG: An International Journalof Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 115, no.5, pp. 585-589, viewed 6 November 2009,Wiley Interscience,<http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgibin/fulltext/119421357/PDFSTART>.Note: use database name and/or URL
Last Updated November 2014 page 9
Systematic reviewarticle from theCochrane Library
(Duncan, Best & Hagen 2010)
Duncan, E, Best, C & Hagen, S 2010,‘Shared decision making interventions forpeople with mental health conditions’,Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,no. 1, viewed 28 September 2010, TheCochrane Library,<http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD007297/frame.html>.ORDuncan, E, Best, C & Hagen, S 2010,‘Shared decision making interventions forpeople with mental health conditions’,Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,no. 1, viewed 28 September 2010, TheCochrane Library.ORDuncan, E, Best, C & Hagen, S 2010,‘Shared decision making interventions forpeople with mental health conditions’,Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,no. 1, viewed 28 September 2010, TheCochrane Library,<http://www.thecochranelibrary.com/view/0/index.html>.
Journal article free onthe World Wide Web –author
(Parker et al. 2009)
Parker, RM, Keleher, HM, Francis, K,Abdulwadud, O 2009, ‘Practice nursing inAustralia: A review of education and careerpathways’ BMC Nursing, vol. 8, no.5,viewed 27 November 2009,<http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6955/8/5>.
Newspaper articlefrom an electronicdatabase – author
(Trenwith 2007)
Trenwith, C 2007, ‘Midwives say ward maynot reopen’, Illawarra Mercury, 21September, viewed 9 September 2008, ANZReference Centre (EBSCO).
Newspaper articlefrom the World WideWeb – author
Trounson in describing the response toTAFE nursing degrees stated , ‘Thenursing profession is worried’ (2008,para. 6).
Trounson, A 2008, ‘TAFE nursing degreesspark protest’, The Australian, 5 September,viewed 6 November 2009,<http://www.theaustralian.com.au/highereducation/tafe-nursing-degrees-sparkprotest/story-e6frgcjx-1111117402604>.
Newspaper ormagazine from theWorld Wide Web – noauthor
(H Hospital Newspaper 2008)Note: for electronic newspapers without apaper version, there is too much detail to beincluded in an in-text citation … this detailmust be included in the reference list asadjacent.
H Hospital Newspaper 2008, ‘UMDNJSchool of Nursing receives second grant tohelp increase and diversify the nation’snursing workforce’, New Jersey MedicalSchool/ University Hospital, viewed 6November 2009,<http://www.hospitalnewspaper.com/webpages/news/displaynews.aspx?PT=state&state=NJ&ID=17decc42-b651-457c-94d3-870c55df5de2&e=e_581>.
Last Updated November 2014 page 10
Media Release on theweb
(Roxon 2009)
Roxon, N (Minister for Health & Ageing)2009, Minister Consults on Dental Reform,media release, Canberra, 27 September,viewed 16 October 2009,<http://www.health.gov.au/internet/ministers/publishing.nsf/Content/75B125BE24D05736CA257640002090E9/$File/nr165.pdf>.
Wiki articles[only use if credibleauthor evident]
(Ganfyd 2009)
Ganfyd, 2009, ‘Diabetes mellitus’, wikiarticle, 17 November, viewed 29 November2009,<http://www.ganfyd.org/index.php?title=Diabetes_mellitus>.
Print & Electronic –Reports, ConferencePapers,Lectures,Theses,Brochures
In-text Examples
Reference List
Reports – electronic[annual reports]
(Australian Health PractitionerRegulation Agency (AHPRA) 2010)Note: In the reference list, electronic annualreports do not need the publisher or place
Australian Health Practitioner RegulationAgency (AHPRA) 2010, Annual report 2009-2010, viewed 9 October 2010,<http://www.ahpra.gov.au/Legislation-andPublications/AHPRA-Publications.aspx>
Reports – electronic[organisational reports]
In a report commissioned by theCalifornia Board of Registered Nursing itwas found that blah blah blah (Spetz etal. 2009).
Spetz, J, Keane, D & Herrara, C, Universityof California, San Francisco, School ofNursing and Center for the HealthProfessions 2009, Survey of registerednurses in California, 2008, California Boardof Registered Nursing, Sacramento, CA,viewed 9 April 2010,<http://www.rn.ca.gov/pdfs/forms/survey2008.pdf >.
ConferencePapers – electronic[in publishedproceedings][unpublished papers]
(Bramble, Moyle & Shum 2009)Note: In Reference List, for publishedconference proceedings italicise the Title ofthe Conference; BUT DO NOT include theconference date [ie days/month].(Hamrin 1997)Note: In Reference List, for conferencepapers which are not found in publishedconference proceedings DO NOT italicisethe Conference Title; but DO include theconference date [ie days/month].
Bramble, M, Moyle, W & Shum, D 2009,‘Challenges to implementing an evidencedbased partnership model in an Australianresidential care setting’, in Proceedings ofquality of care & quality of life pushing theboundaries in ageing research asymposium, Griffith Institute for Health andMedical Research, Research Centre forClinical and Community Practice Innovation,Brisbane, p. 5.Hamrin, E 1997, ‘Models of doctoralEducation in Europe’, paper presented atthe Conference on International Network forDoctoral Education in Nursing: Vision andStrategy for the International DoctoralEducation, University of British Colombia,Vancouver, Canada, 17 June, viewed 10November 2009,<http://www.umich.edu/~inden/papers/models.html >.
Lecture– posted on MyLO
(Kelly 2010)Note: If quoting specific text from one slidereference the number of the slide.For example … (Kelly 2010, slide 4)
Kelly, R 2010, CNA145 Lecture 8: Bioecological model of human development,University of Tasmania, Launceston, viewed10 May 2010, MyLO site.
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Theses– print– electronic
(Marlow 2004)(Sands 2008, p. 118)
Marlow, A 2004 ‘Just a nurse: A criticalexploration of how general medical nursesregard their practice’, MN thesis, Universityof Tasmania, Launceston.Sands, DCC 2008, ‘A study of suicide grief:meaning making and the griever’s relationalworld’, PhD Thesis, University ofTechnology, Sydney, viewed 10 November2009, Australasian Digital Theses Program,<http://utsescholarship.lib.uts.edu.au/iresearch/scholarly-works/handle/2100/777 >.
Brochures orpamphlets– print– electronic
(Abbott Diabetes Care 2009)Fraser (2004) describes the joys ofhomebirth.
Abbott Diabetes Care 2009, What isdiabetes? pamphlet, Abbott Diabetes Care,Doncaster, Vic.Fraser, J (2004), Why do women choosehomebirth? pamphlet, Guardian HomebirthServices Brisbane, Qld, Australia, viewed 9April 2010,<http://www.homebirthservices.com.au/whyhomebirth >.
Print & Electronic –Personalcommunications
In-text Examples
Reference List
PersonalCommunications –– verbal– electronic [email, webblogs etc]
In an interview (T Thin 2009, pers.comm., 1 April) about the numbers ofunderweight people attending the‘Healthy Eating’ program, the programcoordinator revealed …Mr A Brown confirmed this by email on25 February 2009.
Note: DO NOT INCLUDE PERSONALCOMMUNICATIONS in the Reference List.Note: Permission should be obtained beforeusing as a reference.Note: include all relevant details in your in-textcitation.
World Wide Web*
In-text Example
Reference List
World Wide Web –document [pdf or worddocument]
‘Nurses and midwives are able to usesocial media …….to connect withcolleagues and professionalassociations’. (Nursing and MidwiferyBoard of Australia (NMBA) 2010, p.1).Note: in reference list, if the author is thepublisher a long name can be abbreviated atsecond mention.Note: in reference list, the date [9 Sept] isplaced AFTER the place of publication/before ‘viewed’.
Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia(NMBA) 2010, Social media informationsheet for nurses and midwives, NMBA,Melbourne, 9 September 2010, viewed 27January 2011.<http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/FAQ-and-Fact-Sheets.aspx>
World Wide Web – webpage
(National Health & Medical ResearchCouncil (NHMRC) 2009)
NHMRC 2009, Stem cells, cloning andrelated issues, NHMRC, Canberra, viewed22 November 2009,<http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/research/embryos/stemcells/index.htm>.
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World Wide Web – nodate
(Kariclub n.d.)Note: ACADEMIC WRITING REQUIRESCREDIBILITY. When accessing/citing webdocuments such as this one, you must askyourself, ‘Is this a credible site?’*
Kariclub n.d., What are the benefits ofbreastfeeding? Nutricia Australia Pty Ltd,Macquarie Park NSW, viewed 10 January2010,<http://www.kariclub.com.au/breastfeeding/the_benefits_of_breastfeeding>
World Wide Web – blogpost
(Miller 2009)
Miller, I 2009, ‘Mindfulness training formedical staff’, impactednurse.com, blogpost, 16 November, viewed 29 November2009,<http://www.impactednurse.com/?p=1491>.
Secondary Sources
In-text Example
Reference List
Honari (cited in Wass 1994, p.46)defines health as ‘a sustainable state ofwell-being within sustainableecosystems, within a sustainablebiosphere’.ORHealth is defined as ‘a sustainable stateof well-being within sustainableecosystems, within a sustainablebiosphere’ (Honari, cited in Wass 1994,p. 46).
Wass, A 1994, Promoting health: theprimary health care approach, 2nd edn,W.B. Saunders, Sydney.Note: Reference the book that you actuallysourced.
Journal Article
The word “research” is “inextricablylinked to European imperialism andcolonialism” (Smith, cited in Pyett,Waples-Crowe & van der Sterren 2008,p. 181).ORLinda Tuhiwai Smith (cited in Pyett,Waples-Crowe & van der Sterren 2008,p. 181) noted that the word “research” is“inextricably linked to Europeanimperialism and colonialism”.
Pyett, P, Waples-Crowe, P, & van derSterren, A 2008, ‘Challenging our ownpractices in Indigenous health promotionand research’, Health Promotion Journal ofAustralia, vol. 19. no. 3, pp.179-183, viewed20 July 2008, CINAHL database (EBSCO).Note: Reference the journal that you actuallysourced.
In-text Example
Reference List
A) Legislation:General term used todescribe laws made byParliament or by aParliamentary delegate.Legislation falls undertwo categories:
 The short title written in italics should beused for citation purposes. First references should always cite this. Subsequent references can be shown inroman script (not italics) with the dateomitted. When citing legislation, you may need tospecify portions of the legislation. The basic units of division are the section(for an Act) and the regulation (for aRegulation) – these replace page number.
NOTE: Titles of ALL GOVERNMENTDOCUMENTS should not be in sentence case –but should have the exact use of capital lettersas in the original document.
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1) Acts (also knownas Statutes)– final form oflegislation passed intolaw
… the Nurses and Midwives Act 1991(NSW), s. 5A, states, ‘Unauthorisedpersons are not to hold themselves outas nurse practitioners or midwifepractitioners’. [DIRECT QUOTE]ORSection 5A of the Nurses and MidwivesAct 1991 (NSW) outlines penalties forthe unauthorised persons representingthemselves as nurse or midwifepractitioners. [PARAPHRASE]Note: sections of the Act can be written infull [Section 5A] OR as an abbreviation[s.5A]
Note – IN TEXT CITATION should include:Name of act – including year (Jurisdiction),sectionNote – REFERENCE LIST: generally DO NOTINCLUDE in reference list; put all these details inthe in-text citation.Note – HOWEVER: if inclusion is vital tounderstanding, insert at the END OF THEREFERENCE LIST under a separate heading‘Legislation’.LegislationNurses and Midwives Act 1991 (NSW).
2) Subordinate orDelegated Legislation(also known asRegulations, Notices,Proclamations etc.)
… the Nurses and MidwivesRegulations 2008 (NSW) ….Note: Regulations and other forms ofdelegated legislation should be presented inroman type.
IN TEXT CITATION – as above should includeall necessary information.REFERENCE LIST – as above generally do notinclude in the Reference List OR if absolutelynecessary list under a separate heading‘Legislation’.LegislationNurses and Midwives Regulations 2008(NSW).
B) Unlegislated legal documents:
Bills– legislation /draft lawsunder discussion by theparliament, whetherstate or federal.
One significant clause in the Nursing Bill1992 (Qld) defines an ‘accreditednursing course’ as ‘a nursing course thatis accredited under this Act’ (cl.4).Note: as above [cl.] replaces [p.]Note: the clause in a Bill, once approved andpassed into law, becomes the section of theAct
Note: Unlike an Act the title of a Bill is not initalics.Note: as with Acts [above] only include in theReference List if important/place under heading‘Legislation’.LegislationNursing Bill 1992 (Qld).
Cases / TribunalDecisions– legal decisions madein a court of law.
The State of New South Wales v. TheCommonwealth (1915) 20 CLR 54Tricare and Minister for Health andFamily Services [2001] AATA 653RJT v Nurses’ Board of Victoria [2000]VSC 498Note: IN TEXT REFERENCE Include thename of the case (italicised) and referencedetails (year, ABBREVIATED NAME ofreport series or Court and page or judgmentnumber).
Note: as above if inclusion is vital tounderstanding, insert at the end of the ReferenceList under a separate heading ‘Legal Authorities’[NOT ‘Legislation].Legal AuthoritiesTricare and Minister for Health and FamilyServices [2001], AATA 653
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In-text Example
Reference List
Australian Bureau ofStatistics– publication– individual authorsincluded
(Pink et al. 2008)NOTE: When authors (individuals) areincluded on the publications title page inaddition to the corporate bodies – theseindividuals must be put first/cited as authors.NOTE: For PDF documents downloadedfrom the web, the web address of page theywere downloaded from should be included.
Pink, B, Allbon, P, Australian Bureau ofStatistics & Australian Institute of Health &Welfare 2008, The Health and Welfare ofAustralia’s Aboriginal and Torres StraitIslander Peoples: 2008, ABS Cat.no. 4704.0, Australian Bureau of Statisticsand Australian Institute of Health & Welfare,Canberra, viewed 20 February 2009,<http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/index.cfm/title/10583>.
Australian Bureau ofStatistics– publication– no individual authorsincluded
(Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)2009)Note: use above at first citation; thereaftercite using the abbreviation: (ABS 2009).
ABS 2009, ‘Health Literacy’, Australiansocial trends, Cat.no.4102.1, viewed 5September 2009, ABS, Canberra,<http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4102.0Main+Features20June+2009>.
Australian Bureau ofStatistics– website (eg censusmaterial)
Reference to census materials is writtenwithin the text:(ABS 2007)If a census spreadsheet has been reproduced whole the following citation shouldbe placed below the excel spreadsheet:(Source: ABS 2007)
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2007,‘Industry of Employment by Occupation –Australia’, 2006 Census Tables: Australia,time series spreadsheet, Cat.no.2068.0,viewed 9 November 2009, ABS website,<http://www.abs.gov.au>.
Non GovernmentOrganisation (NGO)publications
(Peden et al. 2008)
Peden, M, Oyegbite, K, Ozanne-Smith, J,Hyder, A, Branche, C, Rahman, A, Rivara,F, & Bartolomeos, K 2008, World report onchild injury prevention, World HealthOrganization & UNICEF, Geneva, viewed23 February 2009,<http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241563574_eng.pdf>.
Australian Patent No. 763210 (2000)concerned the influenza virus.OR (Kistner et al. 2000)NOTE: a patent can be cited by either thepatent number OR by the inventor’s name.
Kistner, O, Barrett, N, Mundt, W & Dorner,F 2000, Novel influenza virus vaccinecomposition, Australian Patent No. 763210.NOTE: in the reference list, the patent isreferenced by the name of the inventor.
(Standards Australia & Standards NewZealand 2006)
Standards Australia & Standards NewZealand 2006, Sterilization of health careproducts – Radiation – Guidance ondosimetric aspects, AS/NZS ISO11137.3:2006, viewed 4 February 2008,Standards Online Premium database (SaiGlobal).
Audio/Visual Sources
In-text Example
Reference List
Image – in a printedbook
The photograph ‘Greet clientcongenially’ illustrates a pleasantexchange between a nurse and ahospitalized patient (Elkin, Perry &Potter 1996, p.22).
Elkin, M, Perry, A & Potter, P 1996, Nursinginterventions and clinical skills, Mosby,St.Louis.
Image – author, on theWorld Wide Web
(Karsh 1948)Note: Most images on the internet are Copyright inwhich case only linking is permissible, unless theauthor gives permission for reproduction.
Karsh, Y 1948, Sister Kenny, The good, thegreat and the gifted: camera portraits byYousuf Karsh & Athol Shmith, NationalGallery of Australia, Canberra, viewed 3March 2008,<http://nga.gov.au/Exhibition/KarshShmith/Detail.cfm?IRN=49479&ViewID=2>.
Last Updated November 2014 page 15BibliographyFaculty of Business, University of Southern Queensland 1999, Harvard referencing, University of SouthernQueensland, Toowoomba, 18 Feb., viewed 22 September 2009,<www.usq.edu.au/extrafiles/business/journals/HRMJournal/Harvard%20Referencing.htm>.
CD ROM– one CD ONLY– a CD from a set ofCDs
(Maxis Software Inc. 2001)(Szilagyi & Bickley 2007)
Maxis Software Inc., 2001, Sim City: theoriginal city simulator enhanced for cd-rom,CD-ROM, Interplay Productions, Irvine, CA.Szilagyi, P, & Bickley, L 2007,‘Cardiovascular: peripheral vascularsystem’, Bates’ visual guide to physicalassessment, CD ROM, vol.5, WoltersKluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, n.p.Note: if place is unknown use n.p.
Mobile App
(iMIMS Australia 2014)
iMIMS Australia 2014, (Version 1.3.2),mobile application software, MIMS Pte. Ltd.,viewed 24 November 2014,<https://itunes.apple.com/au>.
Film, DVD, Video(Refer Snooks p. 229)
(The oasis: a feature documentary aboutAustralia’s homeless youth 2008)
The oasis: a feature documentary aboutAustralia’s homeless youth 2008, DVD,Shark Island Productions, Sydney.Distributed by the ABC. Directed by SaschaEttinger Epstein & Ian Darling.
Radio and TVprograms
(The Health Report 2008)
The Health Report 2008, radio program,ABC Radio, Sydney, 24 March.
Podcasts/Vodcasts– program– specific episode
(Cancer and the use of complimentaryand alternative medicine 2009)(‘Talking Stick: Health’ 2009)
Cancer and the use of complimentary andalternative medicine 2009, podcast, TheHealth Report, ABC Radio, Sydney, 26October, accessed 29 October 2009,<http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/rn/podcast/2009/10/hrt_20091019_0847.mp3>.Note: Can also use main site details, for exampleabove the link would then be:<http://www.abc.net.au/rn/healthreport/> .Note: do not use podcast RSS URL.‘Talking Stick: Health’ 2009, Message Stick,vodcast, ABC Television, Sydney, 14 June,viewed 20 May 2010,<http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/tv/geo/messagestick/messagestick_2009_ep19.wmv>.
YouTube video– author known– author unknown
(Murphy 2013)(Structure of library’s resources 2013)
Murphy R 2013, Structure of library’sresources, online video, viewed 21 August2013,<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6cdrk2Zyumw>.Structure of library’s resources 2013, onlinevideo, viewed 21 August 2013,<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6cdrk2Zyumw>.
Last Updated November 2014 page 16Library and Computing Services, James Cook University Queensland 2009, Harvard referencing guide, JamesCook University Queensland, Townsville, viewed 22 September 2009,<http://cms.jcu.edu.au/libcomp/assist/guides/finding/JCUPRD_026228>.Library, University of Tasmania 2009, Referencing and assignment writing, University of Tasmania, Hobart, 7 Sept.,viewed 23 September 2009, <http://utas.libguides.com/referencing>.Snooks & Co. 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.Teaching and Learning Unit, University of South Australia 2007, The harvard author-date referencing system,University of South Australia, Adelaide, June, viewed 23 September 2009,<http://www.unisa.edu.au/ltu/students/study/referencing/harvard.pdf>.


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