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CIVL3431 [6431] – Land Surface Processes and ManagementAssignment 3 – Irrigation Scheduling – 10 % [8%]Due Date: 1st Nov 2019, 5 pmThis assignment is to determine the crop water requirement using the Kc-ETo approach andconstruct an irrigation scheduling routine based on a well-known water balance framework.In the Kc-ETo approach, described in detail by the United Nations Food and Agriculture OrganisationPaper 56 (FAO56), differences in the crop canopy and aerodynamic resistance relative to thereference crop are accounted for within the crop coefficient. The Kc coefficient serves as anaggregation of the physical and physiological differences between crops. We will use the approachthat integrates the relationships between evapotranspiration of the crop and the reference surfaceinto a single Kc coefficient and the Penman-Monteith method to estimate the referenceevapotranspiration (?????) and determine the crop water requirement (i.e. actual ET).Based on the water balance approach, you are asked to estimate the amount of water deficit andhence the amount of irrigation needed to support the crop growth.A time series of irrigation data measured daily is provided as a validation dataset with yourdeveloped irrigation method.Supplied files:(1) Tabulated Kc value: 150629_Crop_Kc_values.pdf(2) Almond farmAlmond_Met_Grid_-34.65_138.70.txt: meteorological informationAlmond_NDVI.txt: NDVI time seriesAlmond_NAP_irrigation.xlsx: a time series of irrigation data(3) SARDI Report: Pitt, T., Cox, J., Phogat, V., Fleming, N. and Grant, C. (2015). Methods toincrease the use of recycled wastewater in irrigation by overcoming the constraint of soilsalinity, Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence, Brisbane Australia.Irrigation SchedulingPart 1:Your task is to use the framework set out in the FAO56 document to conduct an irrigation schedulingroutine over an almond orchard in South Australia.The required meteorological data has been downloaded from SILO and is supplied.SILO is a database of Australian climate data from 1889 to the present. Details on SILO climatevariables are discussed here: https://www.longpaddock.qld.gov.au/silo/about/climate-variables/.The tabulated Kc values for South Australia are supplied.Estimate crop water use, work out the water deficit created to support for the growth (i.e.irrigation water depth), considering effective precipitation and the water balance equation, andestimate the irrigation water depth. Then quantify errors between estimated irrigation wateruses and delivered (field reported) water uses.Tips:? Ensure each year of irrigation calculations is separated per season (the season should bebased on the tabulated Kc values supplied). Performing these calculations in the off seasonwill cause very unusual values.? Details on soil properties can be found in the report describing the two farms, which isprovided with the assignment and referenced below (Pitt et al., 2015).? The FAO56 report will describe in detail all aspects of irrigation scheduling, while the VictoriaAgriculture website will give a more practical description of how to perform thesecalculations. Western Australia Agriculture may also be helpful. These sources combinedshould give you enough information to complete the irrigation scheduling calculations. Linksto these pages are provided at the end of the assignment.? You can set up the moisture balance sheet using excel, similar to Table 4 in by AgricultureVictoria. [the link to website:http://agriculture.vic.gov.au/agriculture/horticulture/vegetables/vegetable-growing-and-management/estimating-vegetable-crop-water-use]? Explain your water balance approach, explaining water requirements for production, andhence work out the amount of water needed for irrigation. Clarify your assumptions in thisapproach.Part 2:Now perform the same calculations as above but using a remote sensing based approach tocalculate a Kc and quantify the errors between estimated and observed irrigation water uses. Thisis based on the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a time series for each farm isprovided.The time series comes from Landsat 5, 7 and 8 satellites and has been compiled together. To convertthis to a Kc value you should use the following equation:??? ? 1.37 ? ???????? ? 0.086This relationship is derived from previous studies relating NDVI and Kc over a variety of crops. It iscurrently used in a remote sensing cloud based irrigation scheduling tool called IrriSAT (links to thisare below).Tips:? You can set up the moisture balance sheet based on the NDVI based Kc value (as comparedto the tabulated Kc).? Think about what NDVI is – what it is showing and how this can be used to estimate thecrop’s growing stages?? Compare how NDVI based Kc is different from the tabulated Kc and how this differencecontributes to different estimation of AET and water requirement for vegetable cropproduction.Submission ChecklistAfter completing the analytical work above, answer the following questions about your work andirrigation scheduling:1. Write a methodology of your irrigation scheduling routine and present a monthly time seriesof both of your simulated irrigation depths against the monthly metered values.Additionally, calculate a statistical evaluation of each method (e.g. Root Mean Square Erroror similar).? Structure this so that all of your working is presented as a report. E.g. explain all theequations you used and why before presenting the time series and statisticalevaluation you calculated. Use the Word equation feature to write the equationsyou have used.2. Which of your methods performs better? Use calculations you have performed in youranswer.3. What does an NDVI show? How is this related to a Kc and what it shows?4. What are possible reasons why the tabulated and remote sensing methods producedifferent results?5. If you were a farmer, would you implement a meteorologically based irrigation schedulingroutine over your field? Or would you look for another option such as soil moisture probes(field measurement of soil moisture)? Justify your answer.6. Based on the positives and negatives of each method (e.g. in-situ soil moisture probes,tabulated Kc approach, NDVI Kc approach or others), which would you recommend to agovernment water authority, or similar, for monitoring irrigation water use (i.e. wateraccounting)? Why?Ensure you back your answers up with references were applicable. Feel free to use headings tostructure your response to these questions. The Tips written for Part 1 and Part 2 above, may helpyou in thinking about your responses to these questions. Keep responses to within 2 pages, Q1 andany references will not be counted towards this limit.Please submit as a report in word format in both hard copy and soft copy. Include reliable citationsin the responses to the questions. Also attach the excel spread sheet (or equivalent) used forcalculations via an online submission.Identified cases of plagiarism will be dealt with formally through University procedures.Useful LinksFAO56 Report: http://www.fao.org/3/X0490E/X0490E00.htmVictoria Agriculture: http://agriculture.vic.gov.au/agriculture/horticulture/vegetables/vegetable-growing-and-management/estimating-vegetable-crop-water-useWestern Australia Agriculture: https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/water-management/evaporation-based-irrigation-schedulingIrriSAT: https://irrisat-cloud.appspot.com/Useful readingsBretreger, D., et al. (2019). -Monitoring irrigation water use over paddock scales using climate data and landsatobservations.- Agricultural Water Management 221: 175-191.Hornbuckle, J., et al. (2016). IrriSAT Technical Reference. Deakin University, CSIRO Land & Water, NSW DPI,Australia.McMahon, T. A., et al. (2013). -Estimating actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation using standardmeteorological data: a pragmatic synthesis.- Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17(4): 1331-1363.Pereira, L. S., et al. (2015). -Crop evapotranspiration estimation with FAO56: Past and future.- Agricultural WaterManagement 147: 4-20.Pitt, T., et al. (2015). Methods to increase the use of recycled wastewater in irrigation by overcoming theconstraint of soil salinity. Adelaide, South Australia, South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI).Trout, T. J. and L. F. Johnson (2007). Estimating Crop Water Use From Remotely Sensed NDVI, Crop Models, andReference ET. USCID 4th International Conference on Irrigation and Drainage. Sacramento, California: 275-285.
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