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•Chapter 2Traits, Motives, andCharacteristics of Leaders •LEADERSHIP: Research Findings, Practice, and Skills •Andrew J. DuBrin, 8th Edition •Learning Objectives •Identify general and task-related traits that contribute to leadership effectiveness. •Describe how emotional intelligence contributes to leadership effectiveness. •Identify key motives that contribute to leadership effectiveness. •Describe cognitive factors associated with leadership effectiveness. •Describe the heredity versus environment issue in relation to leadership effectiveness. •Summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the trait approach to leadership. •CHAPTER OUTLINEI.Personality Traits of Effective Leaders II.Leadership Motives III.Cognitive Factors and Leadership IV.Cognitive (or Analytical) Intelligence V.The Influence of Heredity and Environment on VI.Leadership VII.The Strengths and Limitations of the VIII.Trait Approach IX.Summary X.Key Terms XI.Guidelines for Action and Skill Development XII.Leadership Case Problem A XIII.Leadership Case Problem B XIV.Notes •Leadership Characteristics
Trait-Based Leadership Perspective:
When people evaluate managers in terms of their leadership effectiveness, they often scrutinize the manager’s traits and personal characteristics. •The combination of traits and behaviors helps explain differences in leaders’ effectiveness.
Characteristics associated with leadership are classified into three broad categories: •Personality Traits •Motives •Cognitive Factors •Regardless of classification, characteristics point toward the conclusion that effective leaders are made of the right stuff. •Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
Leaders have certain personality traits that contribute to leadership effectiveness in many situations – as long as the leader’s style fits the situation reasonably well.
A leader’s personality traits can be divided into two groups: •General Personality Traits •Traits observable both within and outside the context of work – and related to success and satisfaction in both work and personal life. • •Task-Related Traits •Traits closely associated with task accomplishment •General Personality Traits •Self-Confidence •Humility •Core Self-Evaluations •Trustworthiness •Authenticity •Extraversion •Assertiveness •Enthusiasm, Optimism, and Warmth •Sense of Humor •
The effect of many of the traits is supported by experimental evidence. •Task-Related Personality Traits • •Proactive Personality •Passion for the Work and the People •Emotional Intelligence •Self-Awareness •Self-Management •Social Awareness •Relationship Management •Flexibility and Adaptability •Courage • •Leadership Motives •Effective leaders have frequently been distinguished by their motives and needs. • •Leaders have an intense desire to occupy a position of responsibility for others and to control them. • •This desire is evident in four categories of motives and needs: •Power •Drive and Achievement •Tenacity and Resilience •Strong Work Ethic • • •The POWER Motive •Effective leaders have a strong need to control resources. • •Personalized Power Motive •Seek power to further their own interest • •Socialized Power Motive •Seek power to achieve organizational goals or a vision •DRIVE & ACHIEVEMENT Motive •Leaders are known for working hard to achieve their goals. • •DRIVE •A propensity to put forth high energy towards achieving goals and to be persistent in applying that energy •Usually requires a lot of physical energy and fitness • •ACHIEVEMENT •The ability to find joy in accomplishment of goals or vision •TENACITY & RESILIENCE Motive • •Leaders are also tenacious and resilient. • •Tenacity multiples in importance for organizational leaders because it does take a long time to implement a new program or to consummate a new business deal. • •Tenacious leaders are resilient when they bounce back from a setback through their continuous efforts. •Cognitive Factors & Leadership •Leaders must have problem-solving and intellectual skills to gather, process, and store essential information effectively. • •These skills are referred to as cognitive factors. •Cognitive Factors: •Cognitive or Analytical Intelligence •Practical Intelligence •Knowledge of the Business or Group Task •Creativity •Insight into People and Situations •Farsightedness and Conceptual Thinking • • • • •Influence of Heredity &Environment on Leadership
Does heredity or environment contribute more to leadership effectiveness? Are leaders born or made? • •Individuals inherit a basic capacity to develop personality traits and mental ability that sets an outer limit on how extensively these traits can be developed. •Environmental influences, in turn, determine how much of an individual’s potential will be developed. •Genetics play a role in determining leadership potential. •Emotional intelligence reinforces that leadership is a combination of inherited and learned factors. • • •Strengths & Limitationsof the Trait Approach •Strengths •Serves as a guide to leader selection •Can guide individuals in preparing for leadership responsibility •Limitations •Does not identify which amount of characteristics are absolutely needed •Can breed an elitist conception of leadership •Different situations call for different combinations of traits •Can lead some to be strong at one trade at the exclusion of its opposite •Summary •The trait-based perspective of leadership asserts certain personality traits, leader motives, and cognitive factors contribute to leadership effectiveness. •Personality traits include both general traits and task-related traits. •Leaders can be often distinguished by their needs or motives. •Cognitive ability is important for leadership success. •Traits, motives, and cognitive ability derive from a combination of heredity and environment. •Traits appear to distinguish leaders from non-leaders and effective leaders from less-effective leaders. •
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